Author: Thomas

Louis Cadalvène (1756-1847)

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Louis-Marie Cadelven , after his birth, was born at Versailles December 18, 1756 Jean-Francois Cadelven, bourgeois Versailles and committed to the general farms, from Mèze in the Languedoc, and Marie-Gabrielle Crespe his wife .

baptism of Louis de Cadalvène on December 20, 1756
Her godmother was Marie-Claude de Ville, daughter of François City, Boy of the House of Madame la Dauphine.

Should we see in the job held by the father of the godmother why in 1773, that is to say 17 years old, the young Cadalven was already in possession of the burden of Usher chamber Sir, Count of Provence and King’s brother?

Anyway, the father of this one, Jean-François Cadalven, after first Clerk General Farms, had purchased on his behalf in 1774 a valet charge, also in the house of Mr.

So by the time of the Revolution one could read in the almanac of Monsieur, which is confirmed by authentic patents ( parchment retaining Patents are signed Louis Stanislas Xavier and countersigned by the Duke of Laval by the Duke of Châtre, first gentlemen of the House of Monsieur, the hands of which the parties are sworn):

1 Of the footmen area by
July: Mr. Gros Cadalven in Versailles, and
M. his son in survival.

2. In the ushers of the chamber by quarter
January: Mr. Gros Cadalven son at Versailles, and
M. his father survival.

It may be noted in passing this curious fact: the father and son each with a load close to the elder brother of the king, and each being in possession of a patent it ensures the survival of the burden of another.

Under the Restoration, Louis Marie de Cadalven says:

“From my earliest youth attached to the service of His Majesty (the Comte de Provence had become Louis XVIII) as an usher of the room, and destitute by the loss of two charges remained without reimbursement by the departure of the royal family I solicited and obtained a place of commissary. ”

Elsewhere he says “have been fortunate enough to have particularly proven SM my devotion in very difficult times in 1792, I gave new evidence to the unfortunate August 10 doing my duty at the Tuileries”

Elsewhere he says have taken refuge in the army, the great age of his father being an obstacle to what he rejoined his majesty.

What is certain is that he managed to escape from the Tuileries and thanks to the protection of the learned Monge, Minister, was appointed as of October 16, 1792 Commissioner Wars Aude department. Alongside his application we find this statement: ” Madam Monge takes a keen interest in this application. ” – He was then almost 36 years …

In support of his application, he provided a certificate from the National Guard of Versailles, where he lived “with his father, Boulevard onetime Queen, 8” , dated October 9, 1792.

An information sheet concerning established in 1794 indicates as service before being appointed commissioner: Student for Engineering, National Guard, used the office of Posts of Paris, and under “parental occupation before and since the Revolution”: ” clerk farms, today working with the counting of national libraries “…

We are now informed about services, declared or undeclared, of Cadalvène Louis and his family before his appointment October 16, 1792 as Commissioner of the Wars of the Department of Aude. This assignment him away from Paris when the stay in the capital was made difficult and dangerous for those ancient servants of the royal family.

Upon his arrival in Carcassonne, he demonstrated zeal for organizing services and military establishments of that place as well as those of the place Narbonne. It was also to establish the mass uprising of the department of Aude and knew how to appreciate its leaders and civil authorities.

It seems he also quickly made to see the local company because it was getting married when, in September 1793, he was assigned to the Pyrenean army that had invaded the Spanish Cerdagne, under the orders of Dugommier .

October 1, 1793, he arrived in Puycerda and by order of the people’s representatives, on 18 Ventose Year II, he was appointed Commissioner Officer in Chief of the Division Montlibre (Mont Louis) and neighboring places.

Here is what its about the officer in chief of the army of the Pyrenees Orientales:

“The Chief Steward certifies that the Cadalven citizen commissary of Montlibre Division, arrived in the Spanish Cerdagne during the first moments of the conquest of that country, has created homes, barracks, facilities for food, fodder, timber and lights, military transport, and organized all the necessary services for this division of the army entrusted to his administration, that despite localities and snow that often intercepted the passages, he has left nothing to be desired in the service it during movements and shipments were given proof of his zeal and his activity and his administrative skills by providing general, despite the general shortage of resources, it was necessary to put the army to even walk to the enemy, that successive illnesses they suffered Puycerda are the result of a painful and persistent work and that make in every respect I have only praise for him .
Figueres, the headquarters on 15 Pluviose third year of the French Republic, one and indivisible (3 February 1795) Chief Officer: Probst. ”

These rave ratings confirmed those already gave him 22 Fructidor Year II commander of the Division:

“He conducted himself with all the zeal and activity possible, it has stopped giving citizenship and evidence he gave all the necessary care to supply Campredon and retirement that took place he constantly kept his job.
General Charlet Division. ”

Similarly, General Dugommier, army commander noted it as follows:

“Badly wounded, the officer, by his zeal and activity, saved from starvation army of Catalonia (army said” the Centre “, or Montlibre Division) hemmed side and Campredon Ripoli.”

Elsewhere we find the following notes:

“This officer made during this campaign important services to the army especially in shipping and Campredon Ripoli, during which his foresight saved the Army of famine which reduced the party that the enemy had adopted destroy all retiring. ”

Having mentioned these laudatory notes, necessary to tell that the residence of the Commissioner authorizing Cadalven the division Montlibre has not been easy and without incident.

Dated from the year II, we have several letters written by the father Cadalven War Minister to ask his son to be sent on leave for health, shattered by the harsh climate. Some applications put forward he would see his son get close to him who still lives Versailles and if possible to assign to the Normandy army.

All these requests are supported, plus medical certificates by citizenship certificates issued by municipalities, especially that of Carcassonne, and the popular society Sans-Culottes and Montagnards sitting up in Montlibre the thirtieth day of Pluviose Year II ( February 18, 1791).

The 1793-1794 winter spent in the mountains had indeed seriously tested our commissary when he made party in Prairial (May-June 1794) of the expedition carried on Campredon and Ripoli.

During the operations, he was overthrown in a ravine by his horse with a bullet: it was the bottom of the cut face, four broken incisor teeth and leg pain that made him suffer long. In addition, papers and all his baggage fell into a precipice with the mule that carried them, a record of that loss was given but the claim that followed did not seem to have received satisfaction.

The retreat which ended by shipping Campredon was not done without damage and without disorder amid raised populations. A witness certifies that indeed “the commissioner Cadalven remained last with him Campredon, he was in pursuit of different employees administrations to stop, that that could not achieve it rejoined the troop bivouac at 9 pm on 2 Messidor year II (June 20, 1794) ”

As a reward for his efforts and energy deployed vis-a-vis his subordinates, he was, by the effect of a false accusation, suspended from office on 30 Vendemiaire year III (21 October 1794) by the representative Delbret of people who sought responsible for the state of anarchy in which the army was located after 9 Thermidor. He claims somewhere that had been denounced as a royalist.

But his misfortune did not last long because the 18 Nivose (January 7, 1795) he was reinstated and the chief commissary could write to the citizens and the Commission Member of the Administration component of the Army:

“In my letter of 6th Brumaire, I informed you of the suspension of Commissioner Cadalven, authorizing the Montlibre Division, the representative of Delbret people, and I’ve sent you the order in. I am announcing today pleasure that the best informed officials lifted the suspension and made it to his duties; I send you a copy of their order to that effect and brotherhood Hi Signed:… Probst ”

If so, in early 1795 the Commissioner authorizing the Montlibre Division had received compensation and deserved its leaders commendations notes reproduced above, his health was nevertheless shaken by another winter spent in the mountain while he was trying to cope, through hard work, a situation which, we know, had become inextricable (Fervel 1793 campaigns, in 1794 and 1795 in the Pyrenees Orientales.).

We then see the demand for both marry that due to a fever that he caught bivouacing on snow and often deprived him of the use of the left arm, an officer positioned inside instead of that of Montlibre, the temperature of this country it is absolutely contrary and having experienced several diseases Puycerda.

Reinstated in his job in Carcassonne, he finally got off to Versailles, where his father was dying, to enable him to restore his health exhausted by the effect of a serious illness. He repeatedly asked for extensions alleging addition he is still suffering, as a family business, whose fortune depends, are not complete. Indeed, arriving at Versailles he found his father died and the seals placed at home, his business in the most deplorable condition and surprised testament to his religion in his last moments. It observes that it’s missing as of 25 Pluviose Year IV (14 February 1796) that some legal forms and to cancel this will enable him to sell the little he has, then go and settle in Midi where his residence is stopped. He is eager to leave Versailles, a ruinous country where he has no parents, to go to Carcassonne where his taste for the service attracts.

And indeed, everyone claims the Carcassonne to both his superiors that the Prefect, the Municipality and perhaps also that he wants to marry.

The feelings we have for him are summarized in the notes to his superior, the authorizing officer of the 10th Division:

“The Cadalven citizen has talent, wit, good character and enjoys public esteem. 25 Frimaire Year IV (19 December 1795). Signed Doni.”

So the commissioner of wars Cadalven back to Carcassonne to the satisfaction of all and it is going to get married.

So when in 1797 his superiors want him to reside in Narbonne instead of Carcassonne everyone involved.

After delayed his departure as possible, he finally comply but soon everyone is working to get him back. It does not take long to return to Carcassonne where the notes of his record for the year VII thus expressed:

“Has the ability, a good education, the right spirit, integrity and patriotism.”

He seems to have passed without incident in the early years of the century. But in July 1808 has yet to leave his beloved city of Carcassonne. Napoleon was at war with Spain, it was a corps of observation and the service staff were taken to the nearest area of operations. Thus Commissioner Cadalven is assigned to the 3rd Division of the Pyrenees Orientales Observation Corps commanded by General Reille.

But it was written that this region of the Pyrenees was not to be favorable to him.

Here in effect as of July 21, 1808 the officers of the 29th Regiment of Mounted Rifles which “certify that the Commissioner Cadalven Wars has lost its crews fallen into the hands of the Spaniards and was reached among them to two bullets in his left hand and his horse was killed under him in Catalonia, near the Cammagne bridge (before Figueres) “.

Then the date of 22 July, that is to say the next day, there is a person’s letter, dated Fort Figueres:

“Cadalven, Commissioner Wars of the Aude department, temporarily seconded to the Army of the Pyrenees Orientales, Mr. General Reille Division Aide de Camp of His Imperial and Royal Majesty.

Mr. General,
you know it is well known that in the day yesterday, I was abducted by the rebels, following the deal that took place, all my luggage consisting namely: a new car three horses, including two killed on the battlefield and the third died twenty four hours after my arrival at the fort, a full linen cow nine and all the accessories to reside in Perpignan for a few months, destination changed by your orders I hastened to execute uniform buckle and silver sword wallet containing my papers, a full scholarship 20 gold Napoleons, a large bundle of papers etc … ”

He thinks all the more entitled to seek compensation he was hit by a shot in the hand.

On July 28, it is noted as incapable of doing any service as a result of his injury and the subsequent shock. Also on August 14, Bellegarde where he was evacuated, the Cadalven Commissioner, injured and exhausted, asked to ” go home, Carcassonne “; he complains of continued fever, pain and swelling of the leg, two fingers paralyzing immobility of the movements to the elbow and he renewed his request for reimbursement of his horses and crews still in the hands of the enemy.

But the news has already succeeded in Carcassonne and we immediately use to get him back.

On August 19, the prefect of the department of Aude, request the Minister to Mr. Cadalven, whose post was vacant in Carcassonne, it returns:

“He went to death, it is only wounded, his health was already very weak when he went to the army, it was completely ruined by fatigue of the day when he was injured, he will long out of status to active service, especially in the mountains. ”

Asking sending a Commissioner of War in Carcassonne, he asks Mr. preferably Cadalven:

“Good intentions that drive this military zeal he brings in the exercise of its functions, the harmony that has always prevailed in our relations are to me strong motives to desire Signed:.. Found”

Satisfaction was given to the prefect of the Aude and the Commissioner Cadalven which is again assigned to Carcassonne. But, curiously enough, just arrived, he asked to leave the armed once it is cured, because having already officer he desires authorizing deserve this grade which has already served in 93 and 94.

This request seems to have been renewed, health, moreover, opposing it. A certificate of health officers Carcassonne hospital notes at that time the continual embarrassment of state and often unable to use his left arm as a result of his injury, knee pain and left leg caused by the fall that followed and that resisted all treatments Dax waters or Rennes.

However, the necessities of war will force Spain to send once again the Commissioner Cadalven to Narbonne. Immediately steps are made for him to stay in Carcassonne: the municipality, the Minister Dejean brother, General Guillet, commander of the department of Aude, Lacuée, State Councillor, the prefect Barante, etc … so that, by decision of 12 April 1810, the Minister shall enter the Cadalven commissioner from Narbonne to Carcassonne it will never leave before the end of his military career.

The morality of these various movements is taken by the author of the note:

“Cadalven Commissioner holder: good commissary, in a place that should not leave the place where it is and can stay there.” – Toulouse, July 31, 1810, signed: Count Chabau.

Since that date until the fall of the empire it seems like happy people, Cadalven the commissioner did not have history. Set in the town where he is married to Pauline Demoiselle Thoron Jacquette, born in 1775 and considered a large family, he leads a very little military presence for the time, heal rheumatism and is responsible for education his children:

Jules Charles Anthony, born October 6, 1798

Edouard Pierre Marie, born August 24, 1799

Maxime Louis Germain, born November 8, 1800 (died in infancy)

Pauline Julie Sabine, born March 17, 1811.

But we will see back stage during the return of Bourbon. In fact, from April 26, 1814, by a letter with the heading “Cadalven Commissioner Wars of the Aude department, fesant according to Deputy Inspector magazines – His Excellency the Minister of War” , he sends his personal and enthusiastic support to the new Government: it expresses “its deep gladness and the extent of the happiness he feels to express, my lord, oh what expression could paint my drunkenness, my love, no, this should be create. Heaven has granted my wishes, descendants of Henri IV and Saint Louis we visited. Long live Louis XVIII! ” and he signs as before the Revolution, Gros Cadalven.

In a postscript he added:

“Attached from my youth in the person of His Majesty, you are right that I beg you to grant me leave to go to my Roy” .

Following this request, it will be given a two-month leave, but not seeing him get off as quickly as he had wished he writes again, saying:

“Since my early youth attached to SM as an usher and filled the House and my father for his kindness, I was perhaps of all those who were fortunate enough to get close to SM find myself the only one his arrival would be deprived of that enjoyment at once so sweet and so strong to express to him if it is possible what is going on in my heart. ”

This request is supported by a letter from the Marquis of Vernon to Count Dupont, Minister of War.

Upon his arrival in Paris, he began his efforts to take the new situation the best possible use. First he obtained for himself and his two son of Jules and Edouard, aged just 16 and 15 years, the decoration of the Lys dated Patent of the July 30, 1814 were signed the Duke of Pienne, first gentleman of the King’s room and addressed to “Mr. Gros Cadalven, Commissioner Wars of the Aude department, Deputy Inspector to journals and former bailiff of the King’s House.”

Then, in a letter dated 1 August 1814, by which it asked the Minister the Cross of St. Louis, it exposes the securities which it believes to have to state:

“I’m one of the oldest Commissioners Wars, from my earliest youth attached to the service of His Majesty as a bailiff of the House, and destitute by the loss of two charges remained without reimbursement by the departure of the Royal Family I obtained a place of Commissioner Wars.

In 1793, I completed the authorizing officer in Spain and one I organized everything necessary to prepare for war and support, I have known the dangers and I have been looted.

I was injured in 1808 in a long and bloody affair in Spain, my horse was reached under me several shots which he died. I was then in charge of the direction of the 3rd Army Corps. I constantly met the Deputy Inspector duties journals since 22 Ventose, year XII, when I was appointed to exercise cumulatively with those of Commissioner Wars. Returning from the army and because of my injury and illness, I have sufficed alone in the Aude department in 1813 and 1814 despite the considerable movement of troops as serving the military administration to that of Sub-inspection, even during the stay Messrs armies of the Marshals Duke of Albufera and Duke of Dalmatia. Your Excellency has in its original offices of parts that prove the degree of confidence that gave me MM. General Dugommier, Dagobert and Charlet, ideal bearer those who attest my injury documents sent in 1811 in support of an application for admission in the Legion of Honor and in support of an application for compensation awarded by decision of 9 March 1812, but not paid. ”

This is communicated by the Commissioner officer of the 10th Division:

“I confirm the facts presented by the letter from Mr. Cadalven and I hasten to bring justice to the talents, the zeal and dedication of this commissary provided evidence multiplied. Mr. Cadalven is also distinguished by its personal qualities, by an exact honesty, he deserves anyway the distinction he seeks Signed:.. Knight Head-to-good ”

Following these steps, by decision of 23 August 1814, he remained on the board of activity as Commissioner of first class wars.

For the period following the return of Bourbon, there is the Ministry of War many letters signed Cadalven sometimes, sometimes wholesale Cadalven.

On 1 October, to Paris where he is still at the Hotel de France, rue Coq Heron, he requested a leave extension because the King has not yet announced the organization of his house and because the interests a family ruined by the Revolution demanded his presence in Paris. He would like a load he had once near SM passes to his children.

On October 30, it has yet to extend her leave for the same reasons – and these are repeated requests for the Cross of St. Louis.

Party in May to Paris, he is still in December 1814, but it is claimed to Carcassonne and he has to decide to return. March 2, 1815, he demanded again the Legion of Honor, always apostille by Commissioner officer of the 10th Division, the Knight Head-to-good.

The return of Napoleon during the Hundred Days is our Commissioner Wars a real disaster.

April 21, 1815, he was denounced by the Minister General Chartrand as “distinguished royalist, who for 20 years performs the same functions in Carcassonne, his depravities have done much harm to Her Majesty, it should be replaced.”

He is summoned to Paris to account for his conduct, it revokes its service letters because of his political principles and was replaced in his job. We will see later how he explains the events that occurred and motivated his disgrace, but until he does his best to try to regain his place. On May 15, it begs the commissioner officer of the 10th Division to achieve its maintenance in Carcassonne: he could not event get him more disastrous in regard to the health of his wife, of his own, of education his children, and its properties to be abandoned not leased. He apostillise request, signed Cadalven by Count Maurice Mathieu, commander of the 10th Division, and June 22, it is made available to the authorizing officer of the 1st Division.

Then came the second abdication and the return of Louis XVIII. Our commissary does not waste time. From 13 July he wrote:

“Denounced as a royalist by General Chartrand, I received the order to deliver the service department of Aude which was entrusted to me and I get to Paris I’m sick; I ask your justice to be reinstated in my home, where I boast to have won the general esteem. ”

Then, without stopping, on 26 July, he claims again the Legion of Honor, always supported by the Knight’s Head-to-good, commissary. This is the same date of July 26, 1815 he was reinstated in Carcassonne.

Meanwhile, the order of 1 August 1815 on the reorganization of the army brings our commissary to fear the loss of his situation; he immediately took up his pen. On August 10 he demands justice minister to be retained in the new organization and with progress in the most approximate radius of the residence of Her Majesty. Then he insists try to maintain at least its present function and avoid retirement “because of her, he said, depends on the existence of family, non-rebated he had his Majesty by his whole fortune . ”

Failing progress he asks the Duke of Angoulême to stay put.

Finally, seeing his chances of being retained in service decrease each day, December 15, 1815 he wrote that if we can not keep his place he asked a deputy up to his eldest son:

“For over three years he worked with advantage in my office although being older than age 19 ½ (d after the birth of Jules date Cadalven, he had actually turned 18 ) , he has the size and keeping a man of 25, he is known by a refined character and always professed according to the principles of his father and of his family, he proved especially since the return of his sovereign. ”

To this end he gives a review of 500 pounds for campaign input gratification where he lost everything. He thinks back to the time when the charges obtained in survival and relies several times at that time on the protection of the Duke of Angoulême, which it was presented by the Earl of Damascus, on the proposal of the Marquis of Vernon .

This presentation to the Duke of Angoulême appears to have occurred Nov. 11, 1815 during the trip that he made in the South:

“At night, the circle that HRH wanted to admit the Company, my wife felt obliged to thank the Prince of the promise he had been kind to me in the morning HRH consented to meet him. Oh, yes, ma’am, I remember very well, I promised him and believe that I will keep her word. ”

But promises of princes are fragile things and, because of his age (he was in his sixtieth year), his request could not be accepted and he was retired at the date of 1 January 1816.

Similarly, the request it made to get her son a deputy instead seems to have been more successful. But he is not discouraged for it and effective February 20, 1816 application to the Minister for that son a sub-lieutenant in the Dragons of Hérault:

Carcassonne, February 20, 1816

My lord,

My eldest son, Charles Anthony Julius, second lieutenant in the Régiment de Languedoc, claims the favor of Your Excellency that your letters promise him the 11 and 19 December, with the officers of the regiment are allowed in the Hérault Dragons and form the core.

My son, my lord, born amid the political storms, has stopped hearing about him expressions of love for his legitimate King and indignation to the usurper government. He received lesson for facts to support advice and knew his father, owner of two charges bailiff His Majesty was the small number of those to August 10 were able to escape at the Tuileries, they did their duty of loyal subjects, that in April he was dismissed by the usurper for refusing to General Chartrand, too known in the South, to go to the head of the garrison to swear in his rebellious master and participate in its proclamation and he refused a service letter that came to him to be used in Paris.

My son, my Lord, nourished by his love for Roy, seized the first opportunity that presented itself to defend such a great cause as the legitimacy of Bourbon; he got to be part of the Languedoc Regiment at that time so glorious for SM faithful where it was not by sterile vows, though fervent, he had to prove his devotion, but by energetic actions. Given these conditions, my lord, please fill the wishes of my son and his family by granting him patent lieutenant in the Dragons of Herault, in the regiment whose officers look like a claim to fame at the time which was formed from the Languedoc, where they began their military careers.

I would present my old songs and my devotion to the King, countersigned in referrals and recommendations was willing to HRH the Duke of Angoulême, despite my years of service, I should make an exception, if possible, to Roy’s order of 1 August and responses Your Excellency was pleased when, on February 15 informed that His Majesty had deigned to accommodate my low offer of 500 francs and she saw with pleasure this new evidence my dedication to her service.

I am with respect, Sir, Your Excellency’s most humble and obedient servant.

Wholesale Cadalven
Commissioner retired Wars since the order of His Majesty from 1 August. ”

The application mentions numerous recommendations, particularly those of the touring cavalry inspector in the south, Lieutenant General of La Mothe (Paultre Vicomte de la Mothe, including Island of Cadalvene – son of the commissioner – the parent married in 1844 ), colonel of cavalry Languedoc Borie Ventimiglia, Count Partouneaux, Count Maurice Mathieu of Redorte.

The father repeated this request several times and stressed that fact that he never received any thanks – it reports its services and those of his parents since 1686, either in the King’s Guards, is in line and it lists:

In 1696, Lieutenant in the Royal Roussillon

In 1698, April 8, Lieutenant in the regiment of the Queen

In 1701, 1 May, Lieutenant in the Regiment Oléron

In 1702, April 15, Captain in Royal Picardie

In 1706, Cornette in the Carabinieri

In 1717, Lieutenant in the Carabinieri

In 1745, the King Bodyguard Company Harcourt Bridge Brigade.

Demand for the month of August 1816 is as follows countersigned by the Field Marshal, Commander the department of Aude, Baron Viomenil:

“To welcome this request would reward both the services of the father and those that the son went to the royal cause in the Chasseurs of Languedoc, where he had been admitted as a Second Lieutenant, knowing the good feelings and dedication of M . Cadalven son whose family is recommendable in every respect, I have to report back to SE as worthy of his kindness.
Carcassonne, August 3, 1816.

These efforts were unsuccessful, they were renewed in 1818, but then the time we got loads of support was passed and the young candidate opposed the new regulation which required to be appointed lieutenant, 4 years service, including two as NCO. He could not therefore get his sub-lieutenant although Count Fournier Sarlovèze, inspector general of the cavalry was well noted:

“I have examined this young officer and I find that after the education he received, his physique and his military inclinations, it is suitable for light cavalry. For this reason and in consideration of the rights father of service and dedication son have acquired the King’s kindness, I beg to propose Mr. Jules Gros Cadalven for a job of lieutenant in the Hunters on horseback. ”

The recommendation of Barthe la Bastide, MP of the Aude, the Marquis de Puivert and even a petition supported by the Duke of Angoulême had no effect and when the young man would later know his service was sent to him extract following:

Extract of the names of Hunters Regiment mounted officers of the Languedoc sent in February 1816

“Mr. Cadalven of provisional lieutenant in the army of the Drôme, joined one of the first gathering in Beziers. HRH the Duke of Angouleme appointed him lieutenant in the Chasseurs of Languedoc. He leads to this day so as to give the most beautiful hopes, his political conduct is above his age. ”

The original judgment which ends the extract to report because the applicant, born in 1798, was only 17 years old.

But if the minister did not satisfy the demand of the son, meanwhile, to calm the father, who always asked to be reinstated despite his age, the Duke of Feltre, Minister of War, had lead his request for Knight’s Cross of St. Louis, he received January 29, 1817 from the hands of the Duke of Châtre, first gentleman of the Chambre du Roy, whose hands he had sworn before the Revolution.

He lived at that time in Paris, 10, rue des Prouvaires.

While attending to cram his eldest son, the commissary, now retired, did not forget to assert his title to a reward, and it is dated 1816, several requests for the Legion of honor or the Cross of St. Louis. There is even, as of September 19, 1816, a request for a place of sub-prefect to Mr Melcion of Arc.

It is likely that the steps taken did not stop there, but if we do not know them all, at least we can see the results:

In 1821, Louis Gros Cadalven appears in the Almanac of the Court with the title he once had in the Almanac to Monsieur, that is to say, as Usher of the Chambre du Roy.

Then an office holder to the Court which was also the recognition of charges that he had acquired before the Revolution, the new Usher of the King’s Chamber wished to obtain the consecration by obtaining letters . acclaim following what were the letters exchanged on this subject between the Chancellery and the Ministry of War:

August 14, 1820:

“A request acclaim has been presented by Mr. Gros Cadalven of Louis Marie, former commissary and commissioner of retirement in wars. I appeal to Your Excellency, the Marquis, to know what was in both places the conduct of the petitioner, which services can be delivered, what devotion he showed to what degree of esteem and respect he enjoyed, and finally what are the real causes of his retirement that took place in 1816, etc … Signed:. Count Pastoret ”

Reply:

“M.de Cadalven entered the service as commissary October 16, 1792 and has always served in that capacity until 1 January 1816, when he was retired because of his advanced age (60 years) under the provisions of the order of 1 August 1815. He made three campaigns. It is reached the War Department that favorable information on Mr. de Cadalven throughout the course of his career. He declined in 1815 oath to Bonaparte and was removed from office in the Aude department for its attachment to the cause of the King. in advance had been bailiff of the House of the King before the Revolution and had given August 10, evidence of its dedication. Mr. Knight is Cadalven of St. Louis and I believe him worthy in every way to obtain new favor he seeks. ”

This time the wait for Mr. Cadalven was short-lived: by letters patent of February 15, 1821, the King, wishing to give him a mark of kindness and because of the services rendered, decorating the title of Noble and allows to qualify squire.

The arms that are granted to it by the same Letters Patent are a greyhound as a symbol of fidelity which he has always shown vis-à-vis its king. They are stated as follows:

Argent a chevron Gules, accompanied in chief two oak trees uprooted Vert and in base a greyhound running sand collected azure curly gold, the head lowered and wavy azure three mollettes of gold.

Arms of Cadalvene

July 21, 1822, new letters patent awarded him the title of Knight inherited with the same regulation arms.

However, the pride of the new Knight was not satisfied since remained to get the Cross of the Legion of Honour which he thought he had long since right.

There are the archives of the Ministry of War while a record of the successive requests. September 17, 1811, in a letter to the Department Director of Administration of War, asking him to get him the decoration of the Legion of Honor, he lists his services and send the certificate of the officers of the 29th regiment of hunters horse recounting his conduct and injury on July 21, 1808, and a certificate of Carcassonne hospital health officer declaring his state of health following the campaign.

In 1815 he sent two new applications, one on March 2 before the Hundred Days, and immediately after, on 26 July the same year.

In a petition addressed in 1821 for the same reason, it lists its shares by invoking some new reasons:

Commissioner Wars, commissary Acting Deputy Inspector to 1792 journals and 1816 without interruption

Previously registered in the Gendarmes of the King’s Guard,

Commissary in 1794, overturned in a ravine by his horse with a bullet, lower part of the cut face, four broken incisors,

Cross was requested by me as deserved since the creation of the Order; I notice and letter from the Chancellor of Lacépède;

In 1808 (July 21), my horse was killed under me, riddled with shots, I was wounded in the arm and hand;

I was raised in May 1821 the first state to be presented to the King.

We were given the Legion of Honour to the young people he trained, and not having this decoration is obliged to pay thousand francs a year for the education of his daughter in Saint-Denis, unable request free.

In July 1824 new application for the Legion of Honor in which he particularly said:

“Reinstated by HRH the Duke of Angoulême in his first spell in the south, a second visit of the Duke of Angoulême, SAR, to which I had the honor of being presented as well as my family wanted to give much praise my conduct and to promise his kindness and protection – after so many titles I was advised to pay support for my daughter to the royal house of St. Denis and I pay for several years, despite significant losses, not up, decorating mistake, ask a free seat – my other children are also unemployed.

So calling your justice, my Lord, and it will be a double grace and even more precious than my age, can one moment to another miss my daughter aged 14, and deprived of his mother, education of this poor orphan would be ensured after me.

Signed: The Knight Cadalvene, rue de l’Odeon, 35. ”

This time, it is the Officer of the House of King who has just received evidence of the favor of the sovereign who makes the case much more than the former military. It is in place, as does he shortly receive satisfaction – and 23 May 1825, signed the patent Macdonald, Minister of War, who called the Knight of the Legion of Honor, he is appointed: Mr de Cadalven, Usher of the King’s Chamber. His military titles, there is no question and Marshal Macdonald, Duke of Taranto, notify his appointment the Duke of Aumont, first gentleman of the King’s Chamber, which will be responsible for receiving the Knight of the Royal Order Legion of Honor.

So, now aged 69, who obtained the various distinctions that he could, it seems, claim the new decorated was now able to engrave on his plate, beneath his arms stamped with a knight helmet insignia decorating the Lys, the Cross of St. Louis and of the Legion of Honor. What he did not fail to do.

Around the same time, another satisfaction before him: May 29, 1825, it appears the coronation of the new king in the exercise of its functions to its bailiff charge of the House and receives a souvenir bright blown out of proportion with a medallion bearing the words, ” given by the King, Rheims, 29 May 1825. ”

But the former officer would still die before ordering up to its name we saw varied numerous times over the pages. As January 22, 1827, Mr. Louis-Marie Knight Cadalvene, Esquire, Knight of St. Louis and of the Legion of Honor, Officer of the King’s Chamber, residing in Paris, rue de l’Odéon, No. 35, presents the President of the court of First Instance sitting up in Versailles in the birth of the exhibitor, his fathers and children, as well as his titles of nobility and other acts establishing his state and his family, exists on the spelling of his surname of Cadalvene errors and variations that it is their interest to reform.

In a lengthy statement, he says that the real way to write his name is “of Cadalvène” and all other ways of writing the name is incorrect.

It follows from the documents produced that the applicant’s real name is “of Cadalvène”, the Tribunal orders that the acts of the State-Civil concerning the applicant and his family are corrected accordingly.

One thing though still close to his heart, was to ensure that a child of the survival of the Bailiff charge the King’s Chamber in which he had been reinstated – on this side as it was granted and if, in the Royal Almanac of 1828, we see even among the officers of the House of the knight Cadalvène in 1829 and 1830 he was replaced by Cadalvène son.
it was his second son Edward, who succeeded him in office.

So having put in order all his affairs, the Chevalier de Cadalvène, aged 70, had to wait for death with serenity. He waited twenty years and died in Paris aged 90, in January 1847 shortly before his two son in the grave.

Jules CadalvèneHis eldest son Jules, who had succeeded his younger brother as Director of French Post in Constantinople, died of a fall of horse in 1852. He left three successive marriages three daughters whose descendants still exist and two that died without son posterity.

Edouard de CadalvèneThe second son, Edward, Egyptologist and distinguished numismatist, Director of French Post of Constantinople, it fell seriously ill and had to return to France in 1848; he died in Paris, also in 1852, leaving a daughter, whose descendants still exists.

In 1847, he had married his daughter Pauline, a Parisian stockbroker who was ruined by the Revolution in 1848.

With Hubert Cadalvène, his little son, who died in Lyon in 1918, died on behalf of Cadalvène and the male descendants of the former Commissioner of the wars that had given this name its final form and that, through his work conscientious, loyal to its services and its persistent obstinacy, had plumed his best.

General Lambert-Daverdoingt – 1934

Categories: People

René Georges Le Pelley Pléville

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Le Pelley was born June 26, 1726 in Granville. He died October 2, 1805 in Paris. He married Ursula Marie Rambaud, in 1755. His father Captain Hervé Le Pelley is Sieur de Pléville and ship captain. Contrary to popular belief, is not Pléville commoner. One of his grandfathers ended his life ruined, but it is born Squire. It was King’s Body Guard, Governor of Granville in 1695 and shipowner. The father of his mother Sieur Saussey Parish Lingreville, Prosecutor in the Vicomte de Granville in 1701 and Treasurer of the Navy in 1718 for admiralties Coutances and Granville

Norman Corsaire

At the age of twelve, in 1738, George left his family and the College of Coutances comes to Le Havre, where he sailed as foam under an assumed name (Du Vivier) to avoid detection of his family. He made several campaigns in the cod fishery off the coast of Newfoundland, with good results, thanks to the “jigger” a new fishing equipment. According to him, a beginner can catch as many cod with a “jigger” an experienced fisherman. In 1742 he received lieutenant aboard a privateer Le Havre and made war along the Canadian coast. Some months later, he went to Granville and is found Lieutenant privateer on the Frances Lake . In 1744, he was wounded in a battle off Ushant and a leg amputated after he met two English vessels and have delivered battle. In this commitment the young Pléville has carried the right leg by a bullet and was taken prisoner. He is 18 years old.

Pléville Le Pelley D by Antoine Maurin

Antoine D. Maurin

Portrait of Pléville Le Pelley

(Cl. Museum of Old Granville)

Officer in the Royal Navy

Back in France, and barely recovered from his injury, he is as lieutenant of frigate on the Argaunaute , commanded by M. de Tilly the Pelley, his great-uncle. In 1746, being on the ship Mercury , part of the squadron of the Duke of Enville, he was attacked on his return Chebucto by Admiral Anson. In the fight that supports this ship Pléville loses his wooden leg. His captain saw him fall on deck, asked if he was not hurt:

No, he replied, the ball has given the work that carpenter.

Seven Years’ War (1754-1763) and marriage.

During the Seven Years War, he commanded the privateers. It begins in 1754 in North America. It is found in Canadian waters in pursuit of the English ships. He returned to France and wife Ursula Marie Rambaud in 1755. This is the daughter of Captain Jean Rambaud (Navy captain and shipowner in Marseille) and Mary Magdalene Lieutaud. In 1759, Commander Swallow , equipped with 14 cannons of six, Pléville attack and takes three English vessels armed for war. His wooden leg is still removed in this case. Forced by the decay of his health, to temporarily leave the sea service, it is attached to that port, and successively appointed lieutenant of frigate firebrand captain and lieutenant port.

Officer and then commander of the port in Marseille (1766-1771)

It is found in 1766 in Marseille, the city where was born and his wife Marie Rambaud where she her family since she was forced out of the Dauphiné, is deprived of his property, as Protestant. Pléville also include Granville fishermen who come to sell their production of cod in Provence, including his cousin Eustace The Pellay-Fonteny. At the end of 1770 the British frigate Alarm commanded by Captain Jervis (from Lord St. Vincent), is thrown by storm in the bay of the port. This warship is sprawled on the coast, is in danger of crashing on many rocks, which it is sown. Pléville, informed of his troubles, went to Fort St. John. Along the way he meets all sailors he met and commits them to render assistance to the English frigate. The night is very dark and terrible time. Moreover, sailors showed some hesitation. So he takes on a field of these resolutions that ardent love of humanity often inspires a generous soul, but with great courage, attached to maritime knowledge alone can ensure success. Pléville, the one-legged, goes around the body a strong enough rope to hold it suspended. Then seizing the end of a cable he had the precaution to tie strongly to earth, he lets himself down from the rocks to fury at sea and arrived after the greatest efforts to the frigate Danger. Through the operation he commands, he managed to make it into the port. Pléville not content with having saved the alarm and his crew of some loss, puts all his efforts to repair the damage that it has experienced. And 20 days after, this vessel is en route to England. The Admiralty in London, struck with admiration for a distinguished service and wanting to give a token of his appreciation to the intrepid sailor who is the author, load Jervis captain to return to Marseille with his frigate. He hands Pléville, £ 10,000 and a piece of silverware for 50 covers meals, with a letter conceived in his words:

Sir, the quality of service you have rendered to the frigate “Alarm” is admired by English. Work like yours that Providence deserved the couronnât by success. Your reward is the most flattering deep in your soul, but we ask you to accept as a pledge of our eternal believes that the Jervis commander, captain of the frigate is charged to deliver us from you.

Vernet The Port of Marseille.

Claude Joseph Vernet,

The port of Marseille, in 1754

Marine Museum, Paris

(Cl. Guy Rambaud)

The noble conduct Pléville found later in another award. During the war of 1778 his son boarded a frigate, was taken after a fight. As soon as the English Admiralty is educated, orders were given for his return to France without return, and has the right to take with him a number of his comrades of his choice.

In June 1777 Sir, since Louis XVIII, after a trip to the southern provinces, visit the port of Marseille. Pléville is employed there as a harbor master; in the number of festivities at the illustrious traveler, the one that offers him the Navy is entrusted to the officer. A few thousand barrels of tar placed on the mountain Our Lady of the Guard, have their spontaneous combustion simulacrum of a volcano; jousting on the water, catching your place in a basin at the port entrance. The maneuvers and developments used in combat are imitated by the buildings that are in the harbor. Finally all that the most fertile imagination can invent to express the joy of Provencal sailors is the work of Pléville, during the three days that the Prince goes to Marseille.

On his return to Versailles, His Royal Highness sent her his portrait with a letter full of kindness.

At that time, Marseille became the second French port for the Atlantic and increases its trade in the Mediterranean.

the American War of Independence (1776-1783)

In 1778 Pléville ordered to go to Toulon. It is embedded as the second captain of the Languedoc , the flagship of Admiral d’Estaing and done on this ship the whole American war. During a hurricane that made great damage to the French fleet off Newport saves his ship sank.

Admiral is quick to trust him. Chosen by him to lead in American ports the many prizes made by the squadron of the English, he is responsible to make the sale. A month sufficed to this operation. On his return, he makes the accounts of his management, Admiral wishing to reward his zeal and activity, decided to allocate a commission of two percent of the proceeds from the sale amounting to 15 million (300 000 francs the price of 3 “lands”), but Pléville refuse the award by saying that it is satisfied with the king’s salary gives him to serve him. at some time later, the Comte d’Estaing in need of $ 60,000 for the service of his squadron made useless efforts to obtain them. American merchants, friends Pléville offer to lend him the money and delicacy and honesty reputation did get this very urgent help in this circumstance. Lafayette had tried to find the money, but despite his great fortune, he had found that $ 10,000.

In the assault on Savannah, 9 October 1779, he commanded a company, and comes to the reform when it is dispersed in a swamp under fire from British batteries. In 1780 he served under Guichen, and also fighting at the Battle of Yorktown in Grasse in October 1781. After the defeat of admiral, April 12, 1782, he joined Vaudreuilles, serving under him until the conclusion of the campaign.

The United States, emancipated with our participation, recognize the courage Pléville by the decoration of the Order of Cincinnati (a page dedicated to him on the site Famous Americans ). In 1783 he made several cruises off the coast of North America.

Governor of the Port of Marseille (1783/1789)

In 1783 Pléville Le Pelley, Captain of the port of Marseille, proposes to increase the depth of the Port de Bouc and filed several briefs on that. In 1785, the Chamber seized in turn the Minister concerned a project work. Barras says that as soon as our ship was repaired, we left Cadiz and took the direction of Marseille. We ran aground in the harbor entrance by the clumsiness of a replacement of slabs captain killed in Cape St. Vincent. M. Pléville, commander of the port and the Navy, full of activity, though he had a wooden leg, managed by the maneuvers that were familiar to him, to tow our ship on the dock. From said Barras : it was the Marseille port congestion by “Sartine” which gave birth to the famous Marseille history of the port blocked by a sardine. ” .

January 12, 1786, George became the patron of Benoist Rambaud, his nephew, at the Saint-Louis de Versailles. Pléville meets Louis XVI and his ministers, and was made to portray the request of the city of Granville, by a Court painter.

Pléville Le Pelley

anonymous painting, late eighteenth century

Museum of Old Granville

(Cl. Museum of Old Granville)

Vice Admiral and Management Minister

The Revolution did not take long to burst, he adopts the principles, like most officers who served in America, but in moderation. In 1794 he was called to be part of the Committees Navy and Commerce of the Convention, where his advice is very useful. Soon after, he was appointed Head of Division in the Ministry of Marine. The following year, he fulfills a mission to Ancona Corfu militaire.1797 organize the service, it is done against Admiral.

In early July 1797 he was sent as Minister Plenipotentiary at the Lille Congress, to address the peace. Pléville himself by his distrust with respect to English:

” Rather Letourneur and Pléville the Pelley, honest people, but unaccustomed to diplomacy, had the revolutionary savagery; they considered both English as dangerous men, always ready to intrigue and deceive, and against whom he had come into confidence. They would see that officially, and feared to compromise with any kind of communication. It was not so that we could get along. ”

” … Intimate reconciliations M. Maret more accustomed than his colleagues with diplomatic practice it pressed willingly. But it was necessary to negotiate with Letourneur and Pléville The Pellay to bring meetings to show” Judge Adolphe Thiers in his History revolution, the Consulate and the Empire.

There are only a few days because of his appointment to the Ministry of Marine and Colonies (16 July 1797-1728 Messidor Year V). After leaving Lille Conferences, Letourneur is in complete ignorance of the secret negotiations. Maret let him honors. It replaces Truguet ” man loyal to drastic measures … the character haughty and violent,” according to Adolphe Thiers. This Pléville judge as “an old and brave sailor, an excellent administrator … ”

Justice and unselfishness are the currency adopted by Pléville. Charged to tour on the ratings of the west, allocates 40 000 F. for this mission. On his return, he produced the memory of his costs, amounting to 8000 F and returns to treasure the remaining F 32000. They refuse to take them, the entire sum having been paid in expenses. Pléville insists, but pressed again, it reflects the desire to erect a monument helpful. His wish is fulfilled and the money used to raise the telegraph which serve well in the Ministry of Marine Hotel. Selflessness Minister is the more noble it is far from rich and has a large family. It is made vice-admiral in 1798. He exercises the functions of admiral, in addition to the function of the Minister. The Navy since the beginning of the war accumulated setbacks. Pléville Le Pelley advocated a defensive strategy: ” avoid meeting” . Only individual fighting is allowed, to prevent the France of Trafalgar. We owe him a number of laws which reflected his love of mankind (15 Thermidor Year V / shipwrecked on enemies, 26 Thermidor Year V / refugee relief colonies or other, 15 Fructidor Year V / relief for residents 25 Fructidor Year V / treatment cashiered officers, 5 Vendémiaire Year VI / where pirates may release prisoners of war …).

27 April 1798 (8 Floreal Year VI), for health reasons (he is 72), he resigned is accepted only after great difficulty.

Commander of naval Mediterranean army

Appointed a few months away, at the command of the naval force assembled in the Mediterranean, but exhausted by the fatigues of a life so active, he soon resigned this command and retired to his family to take that rest. The Management Board is aware of the plight of the Eastern Army, tent Oct. 4 to implement a rescue squadron, assigned to Vice Admiral Pléville Le Pelley, former Minister of Marine, and composed of three vessels former Venetian. But the vessels are found in very poor condition, making the water everywhere and serviced by untrained crews. After a month of fruitless cruise, the squadron Ancona rallies just to get out.

Time honors

He returned to Paris to live with his family a well-deserved retirement. The honors come to fetch him. Napoleon has created the Conservative Senate, seeks citizens distinguished by their services and talents . Pléville Pellay is the Senator in 1799. .. A top 50 holders of the Legion of Honour (02/10/1803): Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour in 1804.

He did not long enjoy his distinctions. A few days of illness removes October 2, 1805 at the age of nearly 80 years. A simple monument, decorated with an epitaph composed by Mr. Lemaire is high it at the Eastern Cemetery in Paris by his family and friends.

The Pléville Pellay was a Freemason. Besides its signature testifies, like that of many other eighteenth-century naval officers. One of his daughters, Therese, married January 23, 1788, with Francis Viefville Essarts. The father of this is Mr. François de Viefville Essarts, a former lawyer in Parliament of Paris, later deputy of Vermandois the States General, which allowed Camille Desmoulins to study on a scholarship at Louis-Le-Grand college . He is the author of a text in 1790 on the emancipation of blacks.

And that of oblivion

A single event: July 21, 1907 inauguration of the statue of Pléville Le Pelley, work of John Magro u, Granville

The year 2000, the end of amnesia

Pléville, for 200 years, suffers from amnesia French (not American).

The year 2000 marks a change in attitude: a photograph of his bust (Palais du Luxembourg) is visible on the Internet:

Three books have been published on Pléville Le Pelley, last year:

Monique Le Pelley Fonteny-: Journey of a marine Granville: Georges-René Pléville Le Pelley (1726-1805). Neptunia Vol. 55, Paris, 2000.

Memoirs of a marine Granville, collective heritage collection, Les Cahiers Cultural Channel, Home Department 50008 St-Lô (unfortunately sold out)

Georges Fleury: Award winner Henri Queffélec 2000 for his book Le Corsaire – Pléville Le Pelley – 1726-1805, ed. Flammarion

November 7, 2001 to February 2, 2002: Exhibition on the theme of adventure Granville Newfoundland, accompanied by a publication: Memoirs of a Newfoundlanders Granville, Eustache Le Pelley-Fonteny (1745-1820) edition scientific and highly illustrated a text remained unpublished to date. Departmental Archives of La Mancha, BP 540-50010 Saint-Lô Cedex

Categories: People

Agathe-Rosalie Rambaud-Mottet

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Preamble

Of the 34 persons who claimed to be Louis XVII, only Naundorff possessed secret about the life of the royal family at Versailles to the Tuileries and the Temple .. This allowed him to be credible in the eyes of many of his contemporaries and which also he still has bitter partisans. Of which held it to his information, it was not Louis XVII?

Historians never talk about his political and religious ideas. Yet they are far removed from the majority of those who support and they also ignore the active group, enemies of the Legitimists, who help … in the shade. Illuminated, Germany, plotters Republicans in Strasbourg, journalists and politicians left in Britain, King of Holland, enemy of France (following the case of Antwerp) … are present these sides when necessary really.

Agathe de Rambaud, his main witness, attached to the person of the Dauphin, also raised several testimonies in favor of Naundorff, and welcomed him home. She too was advised … how far their complicity? Presented by anti-naundorffistes as an aristocrat, a little too old courtesan, nostalgic for the old regime, the ultra-royalist ideas, Madame de Rambaud born Mottet and his family do not correspond however not to the established clichés. Besides, Paul-Eric Blanrue and Philippe Delorme rightly observe that we know almost nothing about her and her ideas .

This text is by no means a text or against Naundorff. Its purpose is to introduce my ancestor, that was mentioned thousands of times, without knowing it. Any information or document copy will be welcome.

Agathe Rosalie Mottet Ribécourt, a courtesan?

JH Petrie told that Naundorff was received and widely recognized in the circles of preceding courtiers of Louis XVI. The most important of them are Mrs Rambaud, former governess of the Dauphin …

Funny historian! the surname of Agathe is not Rambaud Rambaud, on all official documents concerning the (church records, court decisions, letters of ministries, letters to the King). On the register of the Children’s House of the King (the archives are visible CARAN), it appears many of the birth of Louis-Charles, the first half of 1792, but in the other category or housekeeper … or maid, as affirm the Naundorffistes .

Courtesans surround the Queen, the flatter, amuse, play to the farm with lambs … and retrieve pensions of tens of thousands of francs. Agathe key 200 Francs per semester plus 200 King gratification Franks. It is simply Attached to the person of the Dauphin , writes Decaux. First as a lullaby, it then remains with the Dauphin, firstly because it’s really like on the other hand the fact that her husband died for King and France defending a fort at heart of Africa. She finds herself a widow at 25, with two children and has no personal fortune. Agathe is in no way a carefree courtesan.

Crest Mottet Fountain
(descendants of Uncle Agathe. Authorising Officer, after 1789, of India) (© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

His parents bourgeois living nobly

The Saint-Jacques church in Compiègne.
The parish of Mottet.
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

Agathe Rosalie Mottet, was born December 10, 1764, in Versailles. Nothing on the extract from the register of 10 December 1764 of the parish of St. Louis, no evidence that his parents are aristocrats. Certainly, his great paternal grandfather Louis Mottet was interested in King Farms for the Bailiwick of Compiègne, Paris bridges Master and Provost of the jurisdiction of the Ladies of Val de Grace in Paris.
Lawyer in Parliament, he said Baron of St. Corneille, but is not found in the Hozier and local armorial, traces of this family. However, it is also an officer of the King and Lord Vénerie Bonneval de la Motte … (certainly because of domains purchased to noble families) Agathe is in many history books about Louis XVII affair under Mottet of the surname of Ribécourt but sign or Mottet Mottet-Rambaud. The actions of the different parishes on, invariably contains the name of Mottet … short.

In most cases, a provost is a principal officer, head of a court which, in case of convocation of the nobility, is the head of the backbench, but normally the parish records indicate if the noble person : high and mighty lord, noble …, songs … This is not the case, nor in Compiegne, or at Versailles … for Mottet.

Besides his son, Mr. Claude Nicolas Mottet, the grandfather of Agathe, is described in a document from the Archives Center Overseas, Aix-en-Provence nobly bourgeois living .

The Department of Marine and Colonies

What is certain is that Agatha was born and live in the middle of Commissioners of the Department of Marine and Colonies and Navy officers. The father of Agathe Rosalie is the Commissioner-General Louis Melchior Mottet, who started as a clerk in the Navy in 1756 at Rochefort. He retired in 1787 as Commissioner General of Ports and Arsenals. His pension is 9000 pounds a year, plus a pension, as Navy Invalid 1,000 F). This is high compared to a laborer, but little to support a family of seven children, including 4 girls Versailles … … to marry.

What grade equivalencies? A Commissioner-General amounts to a squadron leader and a Commissioner or Clerk to a Starship Captain. By cons, a Navy Writer has the same rank as a lieutenant. The salaries are equal between the pen and sword officers.

And then the father will send soon 87, letter after letter to ministers to ensure the happiness of her children and get paid his pensions, also has a step-family, told The Proux La Rivière. His stepfather is also a former Navy clerk, a conscientious man, and appreciated by all. He earns late career 15 000 F. But he says 30 000 F of the dowry of his daughter Jeanne to the Director of the East India Company. It went bankrupt in December 1776. The Company had recovered over 56 million in the royal treasury and the poor Louis Melchior is not the only victim of this bad manager. 30,000 Francs … it is a considerable sum of money to a commissioner. ! The Minister Sartines, assigns him a pension to compensate fired Transplant Santo Domingo. The disturbances that occurred in the richest colonies (now Haiti become so-poor) in the years that followed, did he never touched this compensation. Louis Melchior gets a loan from the Department for its beautiful The in-law David Proux said La Riviere, who is under his command. David became an important and popular character of ministers from the Convention earning enough little money, like all young writers of the Navy …

Map of Rochefort-sur-Mer, where the Proux and Mottet began their career
drawing in pen and ink; 28.1 x 36.4 cm
BNF Richelieu Prints and Photographs

Louis Melchior, is a good … too good man, maybe that will work until his death at age 76, when he was suffering from a serious illness and infirm, long time.

Agathe’s brother, Louis, was appointed April 1, 1789, Port of lieutenant. His two brothers are clerical and math after a good education and have worked with a notary for 3 years, in 1794. One wants to go to La Guadeloupe, the other in Pondicherry work for the Ministry.

The Mottet and said Proux The River are in no way privileged. These are high officials of the old regime, and of the Republic which is described in their records to the archives, as very active and zealous.

A nostalgic of the old regime?

Kings before 1789 are by divine right, and their power is absolute. The France of that is an unequal society, where a competent lawyer son is considered a respectable subject, but unless a wealthy squire, completely ignorant. Despite the rapid development of the masonry, the Catholic church is a key obstacle to the development of society and the freedom of men and women of this kingdom. Protestants and Jews are not subjects. And I’m not talking about the fate of people of color …

Although known, the Agatha attachment to the person of the Dauphin which is not limited to his official duties. However, Agathe is in no way an ultra-royalist Catholic. His family is not opposed to the Revolution, on the contrary, out of anonymity because of it.

The East Indies, an uncle, Benoit Mottet de la Fontaine, born June 4, 1745 in Compiègne, who began his career on 1 January 1764 as colonies desk clerk, was in May 1785 Ordinary Commissioner colonies to India. It offers to his family to take one of his nephews Mottet, to work under his eyes.

With the Revolution, he became Chairman of Chandannagar provincial council. But the extremist revolutionary fever wins the French Establishments in India, a year after its release in the metropolis.

A Chandannagar is established a National Committee chaired by Deverine citizens. Dehayes de Montigny, the new director of Chandannagar, must flee rather hurriedly.

The Revolutionary Committee opposes a plea for conciliation attempts Pondicherry authorities. In turn the Canaples emissaries of Fumeron Mérancy this Mottet and uncle, are not received in Chandannagar. A strong man, the harbor master Fidel Armand Blouet, eventually proclaim in 1792, Chargé de la Nation, in Bengal.

Header of a letter from the Minister to the citizen Mottet, father of Agathe .
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

The port of Pondicherry, in the eighteenth century.
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

But if he is not an agent of Robespierre, this uncle became a judge in Pondicherry, May 15, 1805, then the Emperor appoints the Commissioner Officer of the French Establishments in India. Commissioner inspector officer was the troops, chief in charge of Upper justice, police and finance. He shares the powers tied with the Governor.

So this uncle becomes one of two leaders of the French Establishments of India, thanks to the Revolution and the Empire. Certainly it is kept in office under the Restoration, but it is in no way a nostalgic of the monarchy before 1789.

We find another of his uncles, already quoted, said David Proux The River, recommended by the representative of the people, occupied in Spain, for him to get a higher position.

Several letters speak of a Citizen professing the principles of the Convention. One of them is endorsed by a senior ministry ( Jean Dalbarade, Secretary of State for Marine, from 93?) Under the Terror of this glowing review: I know the ideas of this citizen. And this in a period where the suspect to everyone to be a royalist, especially officials of the former regime. 5 Brumaire Year IV (26 October 1795) Uncle Agathe was appointed civilian commissioner of the M arine and a year later (on 4 Thermidor Year IV – July 21, 1796), he settles in Bilbao, the terms of treaty of peace with Spain. Also in 1796 he became ironmaster Uza. The forges of Uza in Lévignac (Landes), property of the counts of Uza, emigrated in 1792 … seized as national property … he is a director of noble property … sort !!! He died in 1802 of yellow fever being on mission for the Emperor at Fort-de-France, where he had come with Admiral Villaret-Joyeuse defend the Caribbean and restore order. David can also be classified in any category: nostalgic aristocrat of the old regime.

She has little religion

Alain Decaux wrote in Louis XVII found : M. Joly, Mrs Rambaud … Here we have indeed two very intelligent people unprepared to dupes business. Recognition will not come from a preconceived idea, and even their first move will be to both unfavorable Naundorff … He adds: The testimony of Madame de Rambaud is the (considerable) more. It also has nothing of an illuminated the contrary. Father Berthon even regrets that it has little religion. It does not claim to say that his testimony is more valuable, but separate from those of so many naundorffistes who too often have proven their spirit imbalance.

His wedding

Martigues, in the eighteenth century.
The Rambaud past century there have become sailors.
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud

Besides, when Agatha wife of André Rambaud, March 7, 1785, in Versailles, in the Saint-Louis, she marries not with a sworn enemy of new ideas, last scion of a family of privileged .

On the marriage certificate of the father of Andrew, Jean Rambaud, the priest says Martigues as a profession: sailor. Both grandfathers of her future husband expressed captains of boats on the pond of Berre.

Shortly after the marriage, the Rambaud family moved to Marseille and her father adds a bit and became owner and captain. The sister of Andrew marries a pirate captain who’s port officer in Marseille, the future Minister of the Management Pléville Le Pelley, who started as foam and is also son of sailors, certainly gentry, but ruined.

André Rambaud, her future husband serves in Martinique, as using Port from 1764 until 1767. His brother-Pléville is Captain of the Port of Fort Royal, since 1763.

The elder brother of her future husband, Jean-Michel Rambaud is in Fort Royal. It will be sent to Santo Domingo and will become in 89, one of the captains of the National Guard and President of the first provincial assemblies of Santo Domingo (Popular body, where one wears the national cockade and where blacks are often admitted ). It is also found from the beginning of the Revolution, President of the first parish committee. His daughter will marry Baron generated an honorably known Torbeck family, which is causing many postage including that of Affiba, the parent of Toussaint L’Ouverture.

Pléville the Pelley, the brother of Agathe, wrote in his memories, he had to complain to the government more ways than one … The reformist revolution of these abuses, is therefore essential. Since 1790 holds the position Pléville Treasurer of the patriotic Club of Marseille. Adolphe Thiers said of him … Rather Letourneur and the Pléville Pelley, honest people, but unaccustomed to diplomacy, had the revolutionary wildness .

To read his memories , certainly written under the Empire, it is not struck by the savagery of revolutionary about, but if it emits criticism of the disruption and the Revolution overflows, he does not call into question its necessity and goals reached.

Minister Pléville Management is actually a true Republican, a supporter of human rights, even before 89. What led him to enter masonry. We must not forget that under the old regime of sailors, son of boats captains had no chance to become a minister or admiral. Pléville became governor of the port of Marseille because of his immense qualities manager of its glorious past and a desire for reform, born under Louis XV and Louis XVI continued. And it is an exception. The officers of the Grand Body oppose by all means including the rebellion in the possibility for officers blues (commoners, but also with ruined nobles or descendants of Protestant families or whose mother is commoner) to become senior officers.

Portrait of the Pléville Pelley
by D. Maurin,
photo from the memoirs of a Marin granvillais

André Rambaud, the husband of Agathe owes its advancement Bailly de Suffren who observed that: . This officer is full of zeal and military value sustained a very good behavior it becomes, in part thanks to him, the Captain Regiment Pondicherry, a Marine infantry regiment. He was then 30 years and is still considered a commoner. Suffren, a member of the Olympic of the Perfect esteem, helps young infants less than he to become an officer.

Barras is a lieutenant in the regiment where Andrew is captain. Coming from a large Provencal family, he does not share the ideas of his caste. In Provence , reminded Napoleon is said as a noble Barras.

Crest Montgardin Rambaud.
Pine The first crest was replaced by a cypress, a Protestant symbol, in the sixteenth century.
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

Being a descendant of lords opens all doors. July 17, 1782, André Rambaud is to search for its noble origins in the Dauphiné by a Reverend Father, with the General Definitor Augustine Manosque (PR Capuchin Convent in Aix), and view the totally positive response from the -ci Andre Rambaud is now called André Rambaud and is on the parish registers of the parish St. Louis as a squire. The Definitor, a kind of genealogist of the King, is the first noble Rambaud, as alive in 1274, but unfortunately had ruled Upper Dauphiné and fought for Protestants, Rambaud had to recant and were scattered in the previous century.
It can become a Knight of the military and Royal Order of St. Louis, August 14, 1784. He married Agathe Mottet, March 7, 1785. Those present at his wedding:

. High and mighty Lord Pierre André de Suffren Saint Tropez, Knight of the King’s orders, Grand Cross of Saint John of Jerusalem, Vice Admiral of France. Ambassador of the Order of Malta

. John Godfrey of Chaourse, Knight Orders Saint Louis and Saint Lazare

. Louis Thomas Villaret de Joyeuse, Lieutenant King’s vessels, Knight of Saint Louis, a member of the lodge The Union of Lorient , recently.

. David Jacques François Le Proux River (Uncle’s wife, mentioned above), the revolutionary future.

Attached to the person of the Dauphin

But we must not be mistaken, writes rightly Alain Decaux: Madame de Rambaud was placed for seven years with the Dauphin. She did not leave, she rocked, she cared, she dressed, she consoled him, she scolded him. Ten times, a hundred times more than Marie Antoinette, she was for him a true Mother … Moreover, the clever Naundorff knew recalled telling Mr. Geoffroy he had brought her a mother , speaking of my ancestor . At the time, the great noble families not raising their children. The origins of Agathe approached the child.

Agathe died in 1853 and I was born in 1954. A century later in my family, we always had questions about the real identity of Naundorff, and we did not like the kings … if not good King Henry IV. But I knew from the age of 4 or 5 years old, a child died trapped … that this child was the Dauphin of France and that our ancestor had raised and loved as a son and perhaps even preferred her own children!

From the beginning of the Revolution, the housekeeper Madame de Polignac and sub-governesses, from the nobility emigrate, but Agathe stay with his little Charles.

His children and the little Dauphin ‘s help to overcome the tragedy of his life. Andrew, her husband, present at the birth of his son Benoist, born January 11, 1786, not finding its place in France, where it is enough to be born marquis and rich, to be a colonel at 18, takes command of Fort Saint Joseph Shea (in the United Shea, 500 km from the coast, on the top of the Senegal River).

He joined there the Chevalier de Boufflers, philosopher, friend of Voltaire, played in film by Bernard Giraudeau, in his film: the whims of a river . Exiled there for striking a courtier André Rambaud dies of his injuries after opposing the Moors to Galam in 1789 in the island of Gorée, off Dakar.

Agathe de Rambaud was widowed at 25, with a granddaughter of one year, who will never know her father, Madeleine Célinie and a boy of 2 years, Benoist. The royal couple is affected by this tragedy. Marie Antoinette Agathe made gift of a magnificent clock and a living room that was lined by the ladies of Madame de Maintenon (Saint-Cyr). King Louis XVI amounted to Lieutenant-Colonel André rank posthumously.

1789 Agatha close the royal couple is increasingly alone with his tragic fate.

Goree Island (Senegal) in the eighteenth century
(Private collection © Guy Rambaud)

Drawing enhanced with watercolor (1789-1792)
the scar will be noticed on the lip memory of a rabbit bite.
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

Versailles, it follows the Dauphin Tuileries, October 6, 1789 until August 12, 1792, the day of his imprisonment in the Temple. She takes care of this child of Marie Antoinette who said that his health has always been good but, even in the cradle, we realized that his nerves were very sensitive and the slightest noise was extraordinary effect on him .. . it’s like all children, strong and healthy, very dizzy, very light and very violent in his anger … it is very intrusive, he easily repeat what he heard and mostly without wanting to lie, he adds what his imagination made him see: it is its biggest flaw and on which we must correct it well.

She later wrote to the future Charles X that she was present at all the disastrous days of the Revolution and the most fatal of all, that of 10 August 1792 the Tuileries.

Napoleon will remember this day in Saint Helena : I have seen women well placed to stand to the last indecencies on the dead bodies of the Swiss. It’s an incredible slaughter, but women escape all. The Princess of Taranto, Miss Tourzel, Ms. Soucy and others take refuge in a room and wait for death. The cutthroats open the door, but one of them implored:

My good people, you will not have mercy on the poor maids?

And they cut to the heart by the word of order:

No harm to women.

Alas, almost everything in the castle is massacred, to laborers and the troop of children!

Taking the royal palace of the Tuileries, August 10, 1792 (Private Collection © Guy Rambaud )

Journal Clery

The night of the massacre, Rambaud Agathe Clery is left with, in the home of Mr. Ledreux, next to the door of the garden of Mr. Dauphin Château des Tuileries. She escaped with difficulty to the massacre of the Tuileries.

Clery wrote:

Some signs that we made we engaged us to silence. The son of our hosts, who in that time came from the National Assembly, informed us that the king, suspended from office, was taken into custody with the royal family in the lodge of the editor of Logographe, and it was impossible to approach him.

I then decided to go back to my wife and children in a country house, five leagues from Paris, where I lived for over two years; but the gates were closed, and I should not abandon Mme Rambaud. We agreed to take the road to Versailles, where she lived; the son of our hosts accompanied us. We crossed the bridge of Louis XVI, covered with naked corpses, already putrefied by the great heat; and, after many dangers we left Paris by a breach that was not guarded.

In the plain of Grenelle, we were met by horse peasants shouted from afar, threatening us with their weapons:

<Stop, or Death! >

One of them took me to a king’s guard, laid me in plays and was going to shoot me, when another offered to drive us to the municipality of Vaugirard.

he said

Arrived at the municipality, our hosts were recognized; the mayor asked me:

“Why, in the danger of the country, do not you at your post? Why are you leaving Paris? This announcement bad intentions.>

‘Yes, yes> shouted the populace

Precisely, I replied, because I wanted to get to my office, you’ve met me on the road to Versailles, where I live; that’s where my post, as is yours here.

It also asked Madame de Rambaud: our hosts made sure we were telling the truth, and they delivered us passports. I have to give thanks to Providence for not having taken to the prison Vaugirard twenty-two from the king’s guards had just been locked up there, which is then led to the Abbey where they were massacred on Sept. 2 following.

Vaugirard to Versailles, people armed patrols stopped us at every moment to check our passports. I led Madame de Rambaud with her parents, and I left immediately to go to the bosom of my family. The fall I had made by jumping through a window of the Tuileries, the fatigue of a travel twelve leagues, and my painful reflections on the deplorable events that had happened, so overwhelmed me that I had a fever very strong. I kept the bed for three days; but, anxious to know the fate of the king, I overcame my illness, and returned to Paris.

Farewell of Louis XVI to his family in the Temple (January 1793)
By Charles Beanzech – Museum of Versailles and Trianons
© RMN

From the first days of their imprisonment, Agathe Rosalie request to join the Temple Louis-Charles and the royal family … in vain. On 13 August 1792, they should not be legion volunteer to be imprisoned in the Temple with the Capet family.

Jacobins demonstrating outside the Temple.
We remember that, when he proudly showed off the body of Madame de Lamballe cut into pieces.
It forced Marie Antoinette to contemplate this sad spectacle.
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

After the death of the child-king

8 June 1795 20 Prairial of the Year III of the Republic, shortly before three in the afternoon, the child held in the Temple of Paris, breathed his last. In the eyes of the faithful of the monarchy, the deceased was none other than His Majesty Louis XVII, their lawful sovereign.

Widow for six years, Agathe learned of the death of King Louis XVII, June 8, 1795, at the Temple prison. She is shocked. Everyone in the court was robust child as a small farmer, and the time of the last revolt, she begins to doubt his death. It is not only to believe in the possibility of survival is seen in the many books on the subject that she alone and also that this hope is not limited to a few courtiers. We find this belief both among aristocrats than among the poor, foreign dignitaries and sometimes in regimes that succeeded to the Convention, including our Emperor.

But Madame de Rambaud will survive 58 years in his little Charles and his life does not stop there. She has two children to look after and a lot of trouble because of his family. Under the Terror, the Mottet find themselves without bread . Conventional no longer pay the pensions to which her father was right. Under the Directory, of course, when the Pléville Pelley became minister, he is allowed to return to function as head of the Capital Division. The Minister made to the father of his sister what he does for thousands of people even enemy prisoners. They solve their problems and enables them to live in dignity.

Under the Empire, the son of Agathe, Benoist as he returned to the Ministry, it becomes:

. of January 22, 1804 to July 7, 1806, employed at the Ministry of Marine

. July 7, 1806, Second Class Navy clerk at Toulon

. January 1, 1808, 1st class clerk Toulon and Lorient, until 1 September 1810

. Controller direct contributions, 8 November 1810 (until 1 January 1814)

The Duke of Normandy, dolphin death of his brother, King at the death of his father death (?) After remaining without care, in a dungeon for months and months under the Terror, considered illegitimate by Louis XVIII, before and especially after his death.
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

The disillusionment

During the Revolution, the Consulate and the Empire, Agathe de Rambaud saw men and women, often lowly and worthless, become officials of the regime because of their relationships. Her, she said Uncle of the child she raised, Louis XVIII, will be King of France and of course we will honor the memory of the martyr-king child and reward people who stayed faithful to the royal family, risking their lives … it seems logical.

His son is the King during the Hundred Days. It is named in Ghent, April 13, 1815, Commissioner war assistant, and part in that capacity part of the Army Corps of the Duke of Berry. In reality, this corps is composed of a few hundred volunteers. But after Waterloo, King surrounds himself with people who served all regimes or ultra-royalists, the very people who caused the Revolution and the death of Louis XVII by their excesses.

Louis XVII. Detail of a painting of Madame Vigee-Lebrun
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

As written in Lenotre King Louis XVII and the riddle of the Temple : Just installed, Louis XVIII had given the order to seek, in the cemetery of the Madeleine, the exact location of the bodies of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette ; but they forgot to undertake such an inquiry about Louis XVII. The child of the Temple who were in France and especially in Paris, so many devout, was also disdained the Tuileries his parents that if he belonged to the race of the hated usurper that was to pay court as not to speak of it .

One can also reasonably ask: why were they buried the child of the temple, without the name of a king? The revolutionaries and especially the ultra-royalists spreading all the rumors that Louis XVII was the son of Fersen. Of course, this slander, confirmed by any reliable evidence, while the Queen was constantly surrounded by a swarm of courtiers, servants, officials or relatives, normally serves the interests of Louis XVIII, but the reality of such ignominy disgust by many.

We try to forget the child died in the Temple, the Court and the people. Certainly Agathe is entitled to a pension of 1,000 F, but it is charity, saw the dangers and the love she has surrounded the Dauphin. Meanwhile, the rich immigrants share a billion francs. His son is monitored by spies Feltre Duke recommends to appoint him to Paris in 1816 for a better look. It annotates in his file: dangerous subject! to monitor !

It is true that the Duke of Feltre, Clarke real name, had already done the same with Bonaparte in Italy. According to the Emperor, he went to ask the Executive Board to Italy if there would be an opportunity to arrest me … who replied they had to avoid penalty points and are thinking …

Clarke had no habit of command; kind of mind was that of an observer: it occupies at headquarters during the Battle of Rivoli doing research on particular officers; this in several displeased and pulled her discomfort … (Napoleon, contemporary Biography)

Certainly one keeps his son in his duties as Commissioner of War assistant until 1817. It is a Knight of the Royal Order of the Legion of Honour and St. Louis. But that does not stop it is set ½ balance, October 16, 1818.

He became the Secretary intimate Prince de Poix, Louis-Philippe de Noailles. He, like Agathe, was a supporter of reforms, but remained faithful to Louis XVI, at the peril of his life. After the 10th of August, he was imprisoned and could not escape thanks to incriminating documents to the Mayor of Paris. Since 1816, the Prince is governor of Versailles. But when he called Agathe benefactor of his son, died in 1819, Benoist is left with just half his pay to support his family. Without any fortune, he is determined to go in India, where a powerful family could offer him a resource for improving comfort and ensuring the existence of his wife and children. This painful resolution did not have the success that could be expected, he returned after three years of painful trials and found by this lack even unable to return to his body (letter of Agathe Monsieur, the future Charles X of 26 February 1824). In India, the Mottet hold important positions, but European officials are appointed by the ministries in Paris.

Agathe asked the future king, her son, a place of Garde-store food and fodder and preferably that of Meaux, whose Benoist’s stepfather was responsible. The Count of Damascus (future minister of Charles X) supports it for this position. But it just becomes Accountant food, Vendome, June 8, 1824. But on November 15, 1828, is dismissed. So he moved to the United States and Mexico. When he is on the other side of the ocean, Agathe, his mother, can not touch his pension and send him to Mexico because he left no permission to touch her, he was so disgusted by this company Restoration deeply unfair. And the administration of Charles X is too happy to hide behind the rules.

Benoist Rambaud died January 9, 1834, in Mexico City, abandoned by all except his mother.

Therese Gaudelet Armenonville, his Wife, daughter of emigrants, remarried Count Henry of Allonville (a family that counted several deaths, including one in the Tuileries and another who saved the Duc d’Enghien, in a battle in Alsace) and lives in the castle of La Hauteville. The Allonville of are the opposite of Rambaud. They were supporters of the English and the Burgundians, and the League. Agathe perceived how this remarriage?

Therese Gaudelet Armenonville
(very old .. at the time it is called Aunt Allonville )
Daughter-Agathe
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

The decisive feature

Paul-Eric Blanrue wrote, not without humor, that on May 28, 1833, the King finally enters Paris. The King is named most often Naundorff, but it takes false identities to travel because all false dolphins met in prison so far. He meets some proponents of survival , which give him money and the host. These are all people who had no connection with the Court. They have never seen Louis XVII as newspapers and books.

The Marco de Saint-Hilaire, who unlike these early people had a little rubbed the Dauphin, but most knew my ancestor had the wisdom to ask his opinion, before meeting him. Ms. Saint-Hilaire told the lawyer Geoffrey:

I know in Paris, Madame de Rambaud, who was placed near the cradle very young Dauphin, she did not leave until 10 August 1792. I’ll write it and you will yourself carry the letter. She believes unfamiliar with the child to be living out of the temple; but at a word from me she will not hesitate to go where you will drive. If it’s him, a line of truth , a decisive feature spring from the interview. On the contrary, if an impostor well! we have contributed to the unmasking, and it would in this case, a good work to help this worthy magistrate in Cahors, if its good faith was mistaken.

August 17, 1733 at 9 am, the lawyer Geoffrey with a recommendation letter of Madame de Saint-Hilaire, visits the home of Agatha, rue Neuve Saint-Etienne, in the neighborhood Good News to ask meet Naundorff. She read the letter a second time and said:

Well ! sir, I will follow you, I send for a coach and I’ll be ready. Here I am, under your auspices.

Around noon in Albouys, placed in the presence of Mr. Charles (Naundorff had the same first name as Louis XVII, his relatives called Charles all), it seems little moved by seeing it and did not tell her his name. Here is the account of the interview written by Geoffrey lawyer. Would she recognize the child which she had occupied for so many years, but 40 years before?

Madame de Rambaud, wanted to test the suitor with whom we would drive it. To this end, it took a little blue dress that the prince had brought in five or six years , and a small portrait of Marie Antoinette. Naundorff immediately presented to the conversation agrees.

Madame de Rambaud address claiming several questions about Madame de Tourzel, the Abbot Davaux, the tutor of the Dauphin. Mr. Charles meets so very satisfactory: in all his answers it completely met when he confessed his lost memory, nothing ventured neither half.

Mrs Rambaud spoke only in truth. She told his vis-à-vis that she was very young attached to the Queen and the cradle of the Dolphin.

Very young, interrupts Naundorff, very young … You’d be Mrs. Rambaud?

Yes, sir, and the thing is you easy to guess …

Naundorf fixed table of the Queen, he received from Mrs. Rambaud; weeping win; he wants to hand me the framework to achieve her headscarf; he had left on the mezzanine; I go out quickly, and as I handed him: My friend , he said, squeezing my hand , it seems to me you brought me a mother.

The conversation resumed. Mrs Rambaud kept his impressions. She told him : I kept a small garment to remind me dear Prince, since they would not admit me to the Temple with Mme de Tourzel; Perhaps you will remember for putting, and under what circumstances, the Tuileries?

We unfurled the blue dress in front of Naundorff, who raised his voice: Oh! I know him well; it was not the Tuileries, but at Versailles, for a party … and I did most common, I think, from the party, because it bothered me.

At that moment, Madame de Rambaud yielded to her emotion. She put one knee in front of the person who had to answer him that way and exclaimed: Only my Prince who can tell me that. And she pressed her hands, tears flowed from every eye.

The effective recognition thus occurs after the clarifications Naundorff relative to the small blue coat, writes Paul Eric Blanrue, which is partly true, but he forgets that my ancestor put to him before a series of questions about life in Versailles Tuileries on what was happening in the apartments of the Queen and her brother and sister, his parents, his family (?): domestic and housekeepers. Naundorff also quickly shows her scars identical to that of Louis XVII. She speaks all specific brands it carries.

My ancestor was like a mother to Louis XVII. Due respect to the polemicists who are dedicated to this case, all the historians of that period know well that the Queen would not up their children and housekeepers were the numbers … very, very … Pay. So it is only to judge, or Madame de Tourzel.

Moreover, when Mr. Geoffroy wrote that Naundorff said that he had brought a mother , it is obviously that of Madame de Rambaud Naundorff spoke rather of Queen’s portrait. (In good French, he would have said modifications not replicate supporters brought the watchmaker).

Paul Eric Blanrue

There are 15 months I started doing genealogical and historical research on my family. Guillaume Farel is well known, but in Protestant countries. Pléville Le Pelley and Antoine Rambaud Furmeyer were forgotten (recently, this is not the case). Remained Agathe de Rambaud, including thousands of articles, books or reports or information TV speak. I was led to read the book of Paul Eric Blanrue and we exchanged a few letters. I knew nothing about this conundrum. With university studies in history-G, I was interested in history with a capital H. I have since read a few books on the subject, I asked my relatives, cousins descendants of Agathe, reviewed documents at CARAN and MCAD. I also debated on the subject, received letters from supporters or opponents of Naundorff and also people who are asking questions like me. Some passages of his book, which I do not question either the quality, nor the full findings show that this biography is not superfluous.

Paul-Eric Blanrue writes: August 19, 1833, Mrs. Agathe joined Marco de Saint-Hilaire, telling him it would be impossible not to reconnaître- and in fact, the latter recognized him … For proof: he has eyes and his father’s ways (no Napoleon , this time!); . His physical structure is the same as that of the Dauphin (unchanged physical structure after 41 years is an anatomical feat worthy of inclusion in the record!); Finally he tells anecdotes about life at Versailles. He concludes provisionally:

he could read or learn any language if glib Madame de Rambaud, why not?

Indeed, it is possible. But this historian when he adds the name of Napoleon, to make implausible my ancestor, the reader laugh, but the story gains nothing. Agathe de Rambaud never said or wrote that Napoleon had Naundorff ways.

Likewise when it says on my ancestor Andrew, died in 1789, left for Galam the spring 87 : He died two years later, leaving her with two children. Mrs Rambaud had meanwhile become lullaby of the second son of Louis XVI. However, in 1789, Charles-Louis as everyone called Charles, Sieur except Blanrue is no longer cradled a long time, it has 4 years !! ! She’s lullaby in 1785, 1786 … not 89!

Also, my ancestor knows when though Charles was dressed as a girl or not! Blanrue is surprised: What is surprising is that Madame de Rambaud be left up in the game it was nevertheless be aware of the custom.. Sure !!! she dressed every day, she was staying in the room next to that of the child of the royal couple! The Naundorffistes replicate with reason: the child Louis XVII (nor his elder brother) have never been dressed as a girl until the age of 7 years: he shows us a single portrait of Louis-Charles dress! We only know that Marie Antoinette surrounded by his daughter, his son Louis, about 6 years, in breeches, and Louis-Charles on his knees, baby, with, actually a dress.

Madame de Rambaud nothing of Jeanne Calment. It is old, but not senile!

Blanrue also writes, according to the Journal of Clery, she just fled in time to not suffer the persecution of 10 August 1792. However, we have seen it was, she suffers the whole day and takes refuge the evening with neighbors of the castle and is stopped with Clery, going to Versailles. Pages and pages of Clery not enough, we must break the image of my ancestor, at all costs to prove that they are right!

Mr. Blanrue wants to convey my ancestor for an ambitious adventurer . T out what it won in the cause of Naundorff, they are actually persecuted, searches and harassment of all kinds ), replicate the naundorffistes him, not without forgetting due to mention the money that she, her family and relatives poured. The watchmaker loved luxury, when it is seized in London, is discovered at his home a real Aladdin’s cave .

Other testimonies

After Agathe de Rambaud, over 53 people have attested that Naundorff was well Louis XVII, the Minister of Joly justice Fleury, the secretary of Louis XVI, Mr. Bremond, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Montciel, Real Marco St Hilaire, etc. Among others, a woman of ordinary room, which took care of the daily Dauphin, Madame de Saint-Brice, asserts.

53 people who have experienced the Dolphin, 53 people who defy the powers that be, its police and its judges and accept courageously testify.

How are silent?

How many were content to recognize and not to share that intimate circles, not to harm their career, have a medal, be invited to the official ceremonies of the July Monarchy?

The family of Agathe and Naundorff

Decaux noted that as of late 1833, Ms. St. Hilaire and Mrs Rambaud took an ascendancy over the prince who grows day by day. A niece of Agathe, Baroness generated from a young and beautiful widow, it is also in its favor.

With Philippe Delorme, I know a little better who they are generated (the family died out in France). Originating Torbeck and Les Cayes in Santo Domingo, c ‘is an important issue about Jean generated capita considered a family behind the release of Parents of Toussaint and allied to Poincy, the family of a known governor of the French part of the island.

Baroness generated share of early 1834 for Crossen, look after the family of the Prince , coming out of the misery and shame.

Dedication of a photo sent to the granddaughter of Agathe,
Mrs. Leon Verger, born Ernestine Rambaud
(© Private collection Rodolphe Saint-Germain)

Madame Royale
Sister (?) Of Louis XVII
(Private collection © Guy Rambaud)

In January 1834, Ms. St. Hilaire and Mrs Rambaud write a letter to the Duchess of Angouleme listing the reasons for their conviction.

January 28, 1834, Naundorff is assassinated. Caroline Albouys, another Naundorffiste, disappointed, it sees the work of Madame de Generes Brother (military)

In August 1834, Mr. Saint Didier took Madame de Rambaud in Prague, but Madame Royale (Louis XVII’s sister) refused to receive: This person certainly more than seventy years, she says, and you will do me not believe that at her age she has made this trip to talk to me.

The next Prague police gave 24 hours at Madame Rambaud to leave. The police ! Alain Decaux, judge it incomprehensible refusal due to the repute of Agathe and especially since she said she remembered perfectly. She had accomplished as one crime to 70 years travel Prague and requested a meeting with Madame Royale. Was she afraid that my ancestor was asked about his real identity?

Agathe joined Naundorff after the expulsion of Dresden. His Niece installed Naundorff family in this city since April.

Statement by Ms. Rambaud, dated December 15, 1834, stating that she recognized Louis XVII in the person claiming Naundorff.

(Justice # 17, 1835 – Compendium of the History of misfortunes, London, 1836, p 225. -… Louis XVII Hearing of Mr. Favre, 3rd edition, Paris, 1891, p 73.)

In case I would come to die before the recognition of the Prince, son of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette, I think I should say here under oath, before God and before men, that I found August 17, 1833, Monsignor Normandy, which I had the honor of being attached from the day of his birth until 10 August 1792 and as it was my duty to make them known to the Duchess of Angoulême (1) I wrote to him in the course of the same year. I enclose a copy of my letter.

The remarks I made as a child on his person could not leave me in no doubt about his identity wherever I could have found.

The Prince had in his childhood the short neck and wrinkled in an extraordinary way. I always said that if I ever found him it would be an irrefutable index for me. According to his obesity, his throat having taken a strong dimension remained as it was, also flexible.

His head was high, broad forehead and discovered his blue eyes, his eyebrows arched, his hair ash-blond, curling naturally. He had the same mouth that the Queen and wore a small dimple in the chin. His chest was high; I recognized several signs so little prominent, and particularly within law. Then the size was very cambered and remarkable approach.

Finally, it is identically the same person that I saw at the age close.

The Prince was inoculated at the castle of Saint-Cloud, at the age of two years and four months in the presence of the Queen, by Dr. Joubertou, inoculator children of France and its faculty ( Note : Favre gives: A HRH the Duchess of Angouleme. ) And the Brunier Loustonneau doctors. Inoculation took place during sleep between ten and eleven o’clock at night, to prevent irritation that could have given the child â seizures, what we always feared. I witnessed this inoculation today said that it is the same brands I found, which was given the shape of a crescent.

Finally, I had kept as a thing of great value to me, a blue coat that Prince had worn only once. I introduced him saying, to see if it would be wrong he had brought to Paris. No, Madame, I have worn at Versailles, at such a time.

We made all the souvenir trade, which alone would have been for me an irrefutable proof that the current prince is truly what he says: the orphan of the Temple.

Mottet, widow of Rambaud, Committed to service Dauphin, Duke of Normandy, from the day of his birth, until August 10, 1792.

She says, as evidence, to have found Naundorff on the “same inoculation marks in the shape of a triangle”, which was made on Louis Charles at the age of 2 years and four months, says Blanrue . what is rather surprising given that the autopsy did not find them. The Naundorffistes speak of a temperature problem. But this argument is hardly convincing.

Naundorff and Agathe

Agathe Naundorff welcome in her home in 1834 and 1835. Naundorff beginning is also arrested at his home (16 Rue Richer, Paris), June 15, 1836. The Secret Police steals all his record with 202 rooms, among she. Baroness of generated undergoes itself as a house search.

Agathe will see in London during his exile after 1836.

By another statement, made at the Le Mans court, dated July 12, 1837 [clerk of the court Mans] confirms its earlier statements:

The prince was inoculated at the castle of Saint-Cloud at the age of 2 years and 4 months in the presence of the queen, by Dr. Jouberton, inoculator children of France and Brunier and Loustonneau doctors. Inoculation took place during sleep between 10 and 11 pm …. Witness to this inoculation, today I said that these are the same brands I found, which was given the mark of a triangle.

Meanwhile, Naundorf had suffered another attack. My ancestor wrote to the Duchess of Angouleme, a very controversial letter in which it stated: – no one assassinates a forger, is the judge .

. August 10, 1845, death of Charles-Guillaume Naundorff in Delft

A funny legitimist

Naundorff, although it is often welcomed and supported by legitimist and royalist supporters of the old regime, has strange supporters, and at all times when it is in big trouble.

On 14 August 1833 he wrote to Republican Strasbourg, specifying that he would never lend to him dishonorable conditions and contrary to the true good of the country. And it sends them a letter change` 1,000 francs that he had received from them.

These reports with the Strasbourg Republicans are undeniable. They stand out with clarity the Albouys correspondence, and had never elsewhere, to our knowledge, been reported by naundorffistes nor by their opponents. What did they actually do? Alsatian revolutionaries they speculated about the possible recognition of Naundorff, even offering to help him to be recognized, even then for him to proclaim the Republic? The thing is possible. Maybe looking in Strasbourg archives we find the trace of a Republican conspiracy to 1832-1834. Perhaps there is a trial record of meeting – the clandestine revolutionary committees commonly kept the minutes of their meetings illuminating the mysterious part of Naundorff of life (Decaux , Louis XVII returned).

There is also a curious testimony comes, strange way to confirm what Naundorff. The move by Nantes is unlikely, we just saw why, but it is not impossible. In 1886, indeed, the legitimacy , issued the following statement, which I reproduce verbatim. It is addressed to Ms. Amélie Laprade, eldest daughter of Naundorff.

Ms. Amélie Laprade, eldest daughter of Naundorff.
Also called Princess of Bourbon, by Naundorffistes convinced.
(© Private collection Rodolphe Saint-Germain)

Very good Princess.

… Here’s what I learned .. He really had it in Nantes, for a long time, meeting people who remained true to our good King Louis XVII, who had formed a serious plan to put it on the throne. They had concerted to get him, and it is according to a demand that came to him that your venerable father came to Nantes. There, as I have already told Your Highness, they brought him down in a small hotel, or rather in an inn run by good people, so as not to compromise. There was kept for several days. We had to know him gradually to the nobility of Brittany and Vendée; and when he would have had a serious party, we would have presented to the government a protest signed by a considerable number of honorable names.

Unfortunately, we found that our good Prince had liberal ideas too pronounced, a certain antipathy to the clergy and a very wrong way in religious matters, because he developed a new form of religion absolutely contrary to the faith, and with a tendency very pronounced for the sect of the Illuminati . So we feared not being able to open his eyes. The nobility thought she would appoint a Republican leader. The clergy was afraid to find an antagonist to the Catholic religion. They would not throw in all the difficulties of a revolution against-and perhaps a revolution; and ‘was the conclusion and scope: This is the son of Louis XVI, but it is not what it takes to France. It is wrong, more to be pitied than blamed, because the environment in which he lived is the cause. But the circumstances prove that God has rejected. Let act of Providence; and God changes, much later will put him on the throne of his fathers.

It was then, as you know, very good Princess, we did leave for Strasbourg. On this occasion two parties were formed. One of these parties, believing that God had no designs on the elder branch of the Bourbons, abandoned by focusing on the Comte de Chambord. The other, very few, and always remained faithful prayed, hoping that God would change her ideas and bring him back on the throne of his fathers …

Mary Mélient

The Nogard, September 27, 1873.

A Pfeehler address at M Albouys in Cahors, March 11, 1836 letter. It provides news claiming he had said it in 1833 in Bern in an M. Schoch , which must have heard Albouys. He comes, he said again, after years of research, only to trace. In reality, having been able to procure the two addresses by a medium is unknown, the Pfeehler nickname had to write about the same time, to Albouys and Abbe Appert.

We know little about this Strohmeyer said Pfeehler (or Pfaeler). In a letter dated 2 July 1872 addressed to Mrs. Amelia, the oldest daughter of Naundorff, a Mrs. Ducrey wrote: … Finally, around the year 1834-1835, I do not remember exactly the time, my father collected a German scientist, a political refugee, named Strohmeyer.

Presumably affiliated with any international Carbonari, certainly a Freemason and member of the Sonderbund he seems to have enjoyed in Republican circles a considerable influence. What he claims to have known Naundorff in 1833, one can infer perhaps the explanation of these curious relations between Republicans and Naundorff Strasbourg – which we have already said they remained mysterious.

Albouys completely disgusted and even indignant at the attitude of the Prince towards him, returned Cahors 10 April 1835 (1). A letter Strohmeyer, he replies, quite quickly, although with melancholy: he is happy, he said, to hear that come substantiate the claims of one who was his client. A correspondence exchange, and soon Strohmeyer – who always sign Pfeehler – declare that the information requested is for Mr. Bremond, former private secretary and friend of the Marquis of Montciel who was interior minister under Louis XVI. Montciel and Bremond, fiercely royalist, had, during the Revolution, played an extremely important role not well enough; according to new documents, they would have been, in many circumstances, the main liaison between the court and the Jacobin party. (Alain Decaux, Louis XVII found

Naundorff

(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

Upon his arrival in London, Naundorff wrote a letter to the English King William IV to notify its presence in its States . But, Lord Palmerston, then Prime Minister, sends him the letter.

But an English newspaper left, however, repeatedly going to her defense: the Morning Chronicle . The reason for this attitude is both simple and strange. July 18, 1836, six days after the expulsion from France of the pretender, Strohmeyer wrote to Mr. Harry Nelfert, the Morning Chronicle , a letter recommending warmly Naundorff

He gave us undeniable proofs of identity and, although we shall not take legitimate and monarchic interest, historical memories that attach to his name and his suffering, he had to endure what innocent, are rightly compassion of every honest hom me.

But where the thing is precisely strange is that Strohmeyer states that it is in his name what made this recommendation, but on behalf of Top Republican office. So here highlighted once again the relationship between unexplained Republicans and Naundorff. and, by the way if we do not like to make unwarranted assumptions, yet we allow to say that there is certainly one of the keys to the enigma Naundorff (Decaux, Louis XVII found).

Simple really impostor or Louis XVII, the time has not come to take a stand, Naundorff received support, knowledge, information, and by itself it was impossible to obtain. We can therefore rightly wonder who supplied him. The answer is far from certain and indisputable, but it is possible, that we have just seen, and who had never been, so far, to our knowledge, demonstrated that this response is: the Republicans.

August 2, 1836, through Stromeyer Berne was arrested and interrogated in court for participating in Germany to revolutionary conducted. They searched him and found he was carrying some letters at the Duke of Normandy he proposed, by indirect means, to make it happen. The impact of the lawsuit filed by the claimant to the Duchesse d’Angouleme and the Comte d’Artois, and his recent expulsion from France, prompted the Bernese authorities to carry out, as the occasion presented a survey on the subject. Strohmeyer, under questioning, recounted in detail his relationship with Naundorff and Bremond. In details is also a simple way of saying, because, in fact, his testimony was extremely general and continual contradiction with his past conduct. While less than two weeks ago, he wrote that Naundorff had given it to him, and Nagorno Republican Bureau, undeniable proofs of his identity he said in his testimony that he had seen the Duke of Normandy as a deceiver and that this deception was all the more ridiculous and unreasonable that the name had more since 1830, no prerogative! Certainly, the attitude of the Republican and mobile agent who guided the still more mysterious.

And it will follow to the end, Naundorff in his extravagances. For the visions of it continue – and even more. It rarely happens even now to write him a letter policy without placing there some allusion to his last conversations with his or her angels – (it happens now they are three); it also continues to predict a vengeance – dare we say! – Events that persistently fail to realize ever.

Naundorff
(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

Naundorff think in 1833 that Paris is worth a mass . So he made his first communion, under the guidance of Father Appert, pastor of Saint Arnoult.

He hopes to then reach CHF 300 million (plus interest) which were confiscated by his family to him. After he throws the mask and becomes guru, self-appointed protector of his sect called evangelical Catholic Church. In an annex to its Heavenly Doctrine, it can even reform of angels. So, all sensible people take their distance. Agathe-Rosalie, for example, requests in 1938, her Prince to renounce his mistakes. In vain!

November 8, 1843, Gregory XVI there is more and condemns the son of perdition, who usurps the title of Duke of Normandy. This award, which alienates him more, the Catholic ranks, is catastrophic.

But on the other hand, the King of the Netherlands for help, because relations between France and Holland are not rosy. Schedule Belgium Antwerp in 1832, with the diplomatic support of the France of Louis Philippe. We must see in this attitude a vengeance. But Naundorff is buried under the name of Bourbon and before his death, working for the Dutch army. William II has no power to raise the dead. But this recognition, besides not really official, clouds the issue. The Naundorff are now called Bourbon.

Conclusion: a very strange affair

It seems that Agathe Rosalie Rambaud-Mottet has not varied in his belief until his death on October 18, 1853. She stayed for several days in the farm of his Gendre the Avignon Lawyer Verger. She died alone in Aramon, Gard. His body was found by neighboring farmers, the day after his death.

Far from the pomp of the Court of Versailles … and her Prince .

Agathe was still writing to her daughter Madeleine Célinie, June 9, 1849: that his conviction has not wavered for a moment, even today it is confident of its identity.

But…

Ernest Rambaud (1819-1899)

A graduate of Polytechnique (anti-royalist agitation home) and the School of Staff

(© Private collection Guy Rambaud)

In the case Naundorff / Louis XVII, some claim elucidated, two possibilities exist:

. Either Naundorff and Louis XVII are one and the same. My ancestor was recognized, as well as 53 people who had known the Dauphin at Versailles or the Tuileries.

. Let’s not Naundorff Louis XVII.

If that’s the case, my ancestor:

. Either too old , blinded by his love for the old Duke of Normandy, she and 53 other witnesses are duped by a genius swindler.

. Either Naundorff is helped by all individuals and groups that we saw the press or other, more powerful and discreet. Lately, off forum, one participant was surprised that Naundorff not been arrested. On the contrary, the appearance of Naundorff, in the political arena then divide the Legitimists and certainly benefits the Republicans, but especially Louis Philippe to power ..

So Agathe, in this case, was duped by someone who knows the life of the Court by other witnesses and advisors.

. Third solution, Agathe and Charles are complicit. My ancestor is the way to avenge Louis XVIII, Charles X and their families, for personal and family reasons … It is not near anything of Legitimists seen. She is acting on behalf of the Republicans? Not necessarily … legitimists have other enemies. And alliances are sometimes between political parties as enemies but join forces against a common adversary.

A few years later, his little son Ernest is one of the organizers of the coup that brought Napoleon III on the throne. This same future Napoleon III in 1838, which was originally a coup … … supported by Republicans in Strasbourg … At the time, he wanted the emperor Republicans .

Categories: People

Marquise de Pompadour

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This imaginary interview of Madame de Pompadour is composed of actually uttered by the Marquise sentences, taken from his letters. (Sources: Mario Frejaville: “Madame de Pompadour told me …” – Mario Frejaville: “Madame de Pompadour mi ha detto …” – Schena Editore 1981 – With the permission of the publisher). Translation of the article published on the beautiful site Madame de Pompadour

Madame de Pompadour . You know, I do not really like politics, but because of my singular fortune I was forced to study. You are surprised that a woman takes care of all these things, but my situation is somewhat special. I demonstrated several times that women may be right and give good advice. If I can see France at peace, the King happy, quiet subjects, I can say to have lived enough. To do politics, we need common sense and behave properly. But politics is not good for women, because thinking is only an effect of age!

MF. Madam, how do you rate these politicians?

MoP. The art of a politician is to deceive and lie for the good of the state.

MF. What do you think of our two countries?

MoP. Italy is the most beautiful countries in Europe, but it is also the lowest. France is invincible when attacked in her home, but she does not much like the sea. I dare say it will never shine as a maritime power.

MF. Wars are really inevitable?

MoP. The mean “point of honor” is infinitely more fatal in large disputes between nations than in smaller families. Peace is the most valuable asset that a king can give to his subjects. The ambition and vanity of princes cause the ruin of nations

MF. The “external” position of Russia and England to the rest of old Europe … Your experience in government, you did it suggest?

MoP. There are a hundred years, Russia was as unknown as the southern lands. It will gradually become inured and learn the art of war to serve the different powers that want to use it; soon it will come to defeat his formidable way teachers. Perhaps we will see a new barbarian invasion out by the dens of Siberia, controlled by a new Attila, they would flood Europe. God forbid!
In England there are only merchants who want war and they are declared whenever they want!. That’s why he do not listen to what they say to the Court but it is said to the London Stock Exchange. The English are singular: they are greedy, unjust, and therefore they are the natural enemies of other countries. This people is very extreme: in vice as in virtue. They hate the French with all their heart, and the French hate to turn; they are always the war, even if it’s only in the intentions. The Athenians swore to regard as areas of their Republic all the places where they planted the vines and olive trees. The English did not swear, but they follow this practice.

MF. In your opinion is it always better the Monarchy to the Republic?

PW. A sovereign has two families, his and the family of the state, and for this reason, he always has a reason to suffer. In a monarchy (absolute) the king gives a kick to his prime minister, that one gives to the dignitaries of the Crown, who spend their subordinates. It’s a chain reaction among the various levels of the country, which stops at the last topics. In a republic things are very different: one that is in last place can join the first. Yet there is a kind of equality among all members of society; they are citizens with respect to the constitution, there is no permanent distinction between them: they are all noble and legislators. But I have observed that it is a tradition for any meeting to decide by majority: sometimes it would be better to decide on the minority!

MF. The temporal power of the church has influenced, not always positively, politics, and not only your French century. What, Marquise, your impressions regarding these political interference?

MoP. I feel religion, but I have difficulty in meeting his ministers, especially since I have known them. The priests want all men to be their equals. I think they are mostly vain, ambitious, bad about the king and bad servants of God. If you talk about why the church, they respond with the Bible. I wonder if such people are in the world as necessary qu’incommodes.

LFH. What future do you foresee for Papal Rome?

. PW All Europe looks today with surprise a Pope who has good sense and that is philosopher (note: we are talking about Benedict XIV). Despite this, he remains a priest, for it is respectable. It surprises me that the king still continue to send ambassadors to priests who can not or do good or evil. I often think of the church and I imagine the poor St. Peter never thought that his successors were to have ambassadors and could simply place above the king.

MF. Would you tell us what are your feelings towards the Catholic religion?

PWD The Christian religion is true, holy and consoling: it is not to destroy, but to eliminate abuses, cut the dead branches, not the tree. It’s true that the majority of priests can destroy it by their ambition and their intolerance. I think they are made to pray and not to govern men. I love the Lord for his goodness.

MF. Madam, how do you consider the women, then you can consider yourself the best expression of your gender in terms of beauty, intelligence, style and elegance?

MoP. The ambition is to please women, but that is not how they live. They may not like that for ten to fifteen years and end up neglecting the spirit that should serve them throughout life, to grow old with serenity. Beautiful women inspire delicate feelings and know how to reason and give good advice because intelligence has no sex. The only difference between the sexes is that ours is more friendly, but we are much more difficult than men to govern!

MF. Madam, you are a superior woman, with high sensitivity: we can not help but ask you a judgment on human intelligence and the great characters of your time.

MoP. When Newton impressed Europe with his sublime ideas, no one would have ever thought that a French wife, Émilie de Châtelet, can not only understand, but also explain it. This confirms that intelligence has no sex. Molière died with the comic genius. Our playwrights do not address the ridiculous, they should attack the vices. We have a thousand different authors, but we have a poet Voltaire. If he does not believe in God, as they say, it’s a shame for him. This does not prevent it to be a great man.

MF. How do you see the greatest of the new French thought and the “Encyclopedia”?

MoP. Someone said the “Encyclopedic Dictionary” contains maxims contrary to religion and the King’s authority. If this is true, we must burn the book if this is wrong, we must burn the slanderers. Montesquieu was a great man and a good citizen. Some of his works were much smaller pleased me. As for the “Spirit of Laws”, I do not have time and perhaps not even the ability to read. These deep readings are not as few women. Voltaire wrote somewhere that women are able to do as well as men, the only difference between us is that we are softer.

MF. What are his favorite authors?

MoP. My favorite is Voltaire, a charming man who pleases and convinces everyone he wants. I did not believe a man can have as much intelligence, eloquence, humanity. I’m surprised its ability to produce as many things so beautiful at her age and it is so bright and human;Rousseau is a little crazy, for all its merits. He writes in a way so singular and arrogant that I did not do too good opinion of his head. He tries to be extravagant, gruff and rude with the same care as the other taking to show pleasant, cheerful and kind. This is not an author for me it is too tight, surly, always biting and polemical. It does not please me.

Annotation: “The above draws extreme value to the fact that we as people crave things we shouldn’t. Life is beautiful and can be made easy. Take your kitchen. It’s easy to make food with just bread and butter. However, we all want the latest food processor or juicer. We always read reviews on the latest juicers. We swap our slow cooker for a pressure cooker. The above statement shows just how easy it is to enjoy life as it is” – David Rawthorne, KitchenReviewsDirect.com.

MF. How do you feed your culture?

. MoP I need an amiable philosophy, sweet, touching, without reasoning, without lawyers quibble; especially without bad mood. I smeared cards, like all. I write my memoirs of my exceptional destiny, about the events that I saw, which are even more extraordinary. I find this a reasonable occupation for a woman over the age of pleasing. These memories will be published after my death. So I would avoid reproaches petty and hateful men, I talk about in my real story, because the dead mock the living.

MF. Marquise – but I could tell Majesty – instead of Favourite of the King of France was satisfactory for your ambition, but you also put in front of homework and situations that a woman assumes difficult. As did you react?

MoP. Ambition is the greatest punishment, especially in the heart of a woman. I almost want to cry on my madness, but I’m still not able to repent. I am alone, amid this multitude of small squires who hate me and I despise. Vanity, the airs, the smallness of mind and falsehood make it unbearable.

MF. The exercise of power door to bliss?

MoP. I pity the great of the earth that are considered so happy. I often cry on the ambition carried me here and keeps me: you will pity my weakness? It is inappropriate for a woman to talk about these things: ambition of most of those is my sex to please men.

MF. Madam, how did you receive the splendor of the Court?

MoP. I realized that I had committed a blunder by coming to court. Pomp, grandeur, the pleasures of this medium delight me more. The charm is over and I can not find in my heart nothing but an immense void that nothing can fill. Sometimes I think differently and I’m happy: we are only instruments of Providence.

MF. Have you thought of giving up your place beside the King?

. MoP I think any time abandon the court and retire to comfort me with my friends, but my weakness restrains me: I hate this world, but I can not leave him.

MF. So … you consider yourself unhappy?

. PW If there is happiness on earth, not in a court to look on; I find only false hopes, false pleasures and false friends who are threatening to murder me, kissing me. Before, I imagined unconsciously that the Court was the seat of smile and fun. It is rather that of tears, at least for me.

MF. How do you see the assiduous frequenters of the Court?

MoP. When I consider the meanness, insolence and servile nature of most of the courtiers, I find much difference between great men and “lords”. Looks like the men escape me to abandon myself to a human form of animal herd, which bore me. I will become probably really philosopher and, after experiencing the vanity of the world, I’ll end up despising. I have not had a pleasant time since I was there. Anyway, I have to make against misfortune good heart, because I wanted it.

MF. Madam, have you many friends?

MoP. I have a lot of knowledge, a lot of “very humble servants” and “humble servitrices” I see no fun and I leave without any grief. Flatterers are fools who think others are made like them.

MF. If you had the freedom to choose, how would you use your time?

. MoP I do not want no other occupation than to do good: it’s the only thing I love. My power is very limited and I would not suffer for having even less, with the purpose to live for myself. The ladies envy me and I envy their freedom. Here the good life that I wish all my enemies. Public misery, hatred of the enemy, boredom of the Court, ill health, wrinkles, I begin to see my face, everything, in short, makes me so sad situation that believes pleasant .

MF. Are you afraid of death?

MoP. Yes, I’m afraid, but not for me, but for those I love and it tears me arms. I often examine my conscience: it is an effect of age. Dead is released. A beautiful woman longer fear the end of the youth’s death.

MF. What do you expect from life?

MoP. Nothing. I had to remove myself from the Court, but I’m weak and I can not stand or abandon it. I have no taste for what I liked before. I no longer live, I died before time. Everyone contributes to making my life bitter. Much hatred and generally make me fiercely extremely sensitive: my life is a continuous death.

MF. Marquise, everyone knows that at Versailles at the Court Theatre, next to famous actors you have played important roles in excellent authors works. Do you consider yourself a good actress and a great protagonist of your time?

. PWD The answer lies in my letters: those who have the curiosity and patience to read them have found that my life is a life story, brief and intensely lived, only for France.

Categories: Interviews

Pasquale Paoli

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Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli, proclaimed Father of the Nation and General of the Nation strongly marked the history of Corsica. He is the initiator of the Corsican constitution and contributed to the development of one of America United States; many American cities bear its name: Paoli City in Colorado, Indiana, Pennsylvania …

April 6, 1725: Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli was born in Stretta near Merusaglia (Morosaglia), in Castagniccia. Corsica is still occupied by Genoese troops.

He has four years when the uprising broke out in October 1729.

January 30, 1735 Corsica is declared independent by Cunsulta Orezza, who vote first constitution Corsica. The legislative power is vested in an assembly composed of members elected by the people and the executive power is entrusted to a junta of six members elected by the assembly. Pasquale’s father, Ghjacintu (Hyacinthe) Paoli (former general of the Nation, head of the second of the four insurrections which have marked the Corsican Revolution), was elected and serves on the junta.

But in 1739 Corsica is again defeated by Genoa: Paoli are condemned to exile.

Refugees in Naples, Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli took classes at the University of this city, where he was a brilliant student. Where he will receive a solid education and a powerful intellectual training, based on the classic culture, but also the theories, in particular, the French philosophers. This gentleman culture will allow him to speak and read almost fluent English and French, to be interested very early foreign doctrines. It also manifests a penchant for politics in general, that is to say in his most perceptive and disinterested appearance.

In 1741, he joined as a cadet in his father’s regiment. Four years later, after a stay in Puglia, he returned to Naples., To attend classes of the Royal Academy. In 1749 he returned to Sicily. Twice he tried to join the French army, but without success. In 1754, he lived in Elba. But he did not stop being very attentive to the affairs of his island.

So when his brother Clemente and many notable islanders ask him, in the death of General Gaffori (this one named Supreme Head of the Corsicans, is assassinated while his revolutionary government controls much of the island) to return to Corsica, to be a candidate for the highest office, he does not hesitate. The April 29, 1755 Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli landed in Aleria.

Paoli therefore thirty when he finds his homeland. It does not take long for him to be elected on July 15, to the detriment of general Marius Matra, commanding general, by the Consulta of St. Anthony of Casabianca. This immediately loads the mission of a decisive war against Genoa .; July 14, the Cunsulta Orezza proclaimed General of the Corsican Nation.

Paoli will govern Corsica for 14 years.

When taking the power the disorder and anarchy reign in Corsica and the heavy spot awaits. Moreover, his election was not unanimous. Also, and also by ideal, it will seek to achieve the moral unity and national policy.

He will have to overcome insurrection fomented by Matra (his unfortunate rival), and, here and there, resistors, due to the Genoese and French influences or simply due to hostility to a man from outside. But strong supporter of democracy, Paoli will finally succeed to actually take the lead in their country.

By November 1755, he will make the island a state with a constitution, an administration of justice and an army.

Economically, it encourages the development of agriculture, did drain the marshes and stimulates trade but the blockade of maritime cities which he could hunt Genoese prevents fulfillment. He founded the Ile Rousse, to create new exchanges and counterbalance the power of Calvi, Genoese stronghold.

Eager to help the Corsican nation to assert itself, it organizes primary school and founded an University in Corte.

Sale of Corsica to France. secret clauses of the Treaty of May 15, 1768. BN. DR.In 1764, Genoa, unable to deal with Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli, asked France to lend him a helping hand. France’s wish, for strategic reasons, to settle in the Mediterranean, there is the political opportunity to seize Corsica. It will first try to negotiate with the Babbu (father) of the young nation, but it reaffirms its commitment to independence. At worst, aware of the need of a foreign policy, it will accept a protectorate. Negotiations between the Republic of Genoa and France eventually end, May 15, 1768 the Treaty of Versailles which provides, France ready two million books in Genoa, giving as security Corsica … she obviously has . not Having learned of the Treaty of Versailles, Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli meets Cunsulta May 22 at Corti and commented: ” Never nation has suffered a bloody outrage more … it is not clear who the the more of it we must hate us that sells or whoever buys … we confound them in our hatred as they treat us with equal contempt ” determined to defend their independence, Corsicans won several victories over the French troops , including Borgu, October 5, 1768, when French armies must retreat before the fighting regiments of the Corsicans. But greater in number (Louis XV did not haggled ways: 22.000 men, under the command of Count de Vaux) and armed French troops won a decisive victory May 8, 1769 in Ponte Nuovo. One hundred vanquished can escape disaster and escape. Among them, a certain Charles-Marie Bonaparte and his wife Laetitia Ramolino, which carries in her womb the future “avenger of Corsica!” The Corsicans troops routed, Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli forced into exile. He embarks June 13, 1769, in Porto-Vecchio, on an English ship. He landed at Livorno and to go to London, where invited by the king, he made a real triumphal journey through northern Italy, Austria, Germany and the Netherlands . Finally, England greets with all the honors due to a real statesman matching the makings of a hero.

But at the same time, Corsica lost its independence.

Paoli will stay in England more than twenty years. The dignitaries of the realm receive in turn. King George III granted him an annual pension, which he will use much to help his fellow refugees in Tuscany. It will bind to all that Britain counts as writers and artists.

The revolution of the Corsicans rise to that time, the sympathy of public opinion and European intellectuals: the birth of a myth paolien. Jean-Jacques Rousseau, James Boswell, Voltaire contribute to its fame, boosted in Europe by books, newspapers, private correspondence, essays which abound in praises; diplomats, businessmen or historians testify their admiration and esteem. Frederick, Frederick the Great himself is in their enthusiasm, calling Paoli: generous protector and defender of his country, this great man whose public esteem and veneration have already made the immortal name.

July 14, 1789, it is the taking of the Bastille in Paris.

When the States General of France become National Assembly, he is convinced that the principles proclaimed by the constituents must lead the return to Corsica of a national government that would enjoy, under almost symbolic guardianship of the King of France of liberty promised to all citizens. It comes in contact with the Corsican deputies, he met delegates from France.

November 30, 1789, the National Assembly decreed that Corsica is now an integral part “of the French empire,” and that its people must be governed by the same laws as other French. Paoli accept this “home” and even thank the National Assembly for decree.

Soon after, and at the request of Saliceti, Mirabeau did decide to amnesty expatriate Corsican. Paoli can go to Corsica, 21 years after leaving the island. It passes through Paris in April 1790 where he was received by Louis XVI, hosted by the Constituent Assembly, honored by Lafayette, Mirabeau, praised by Robespierre and acclaimed by the people. Finally, he landed, July 14, 1790, in Corsica (now French department), who knows like other provinces the increasing fermentation of the partisans of the Revolution and its opponents. Upon his arrival, he raises outburst of popular enthusiasm. On July 17 in Bastia, it is enthusiasm. Among those who acclaim, a young officer named Napoleon Bonaparte.

On 9 September he was elected president of the county executive and commander in chief of all the national guards (this is an illegal appointment).

Paoli and Bonaparte last meeting. Anonymous. DRNapoleon and Joseph Bonaparte (the latter was elected “voter” first degree) seek and obtain an interview with Paoli. Disappointment. Napoleon hoped Paoli take it as second. But it did not “digested” the rallying Charles Bonaparte to France after the defeat of Ponte Nuovo, and, perhaps instinctively, he is wary of the son. Joseph was elected president of the district of Ajaccio and Napoleon leave the Management Board at the beginning of 1791, his native Corsica. They meet again.

However, relations between Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli and France deteriorated. Moreover, exile was too long: out of island realities, in an era of change, it is not really master of the island.

In 1792, in order to preserve the Corsicans atrocities of the French Revolution, Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli distanced himself from revolutionary. Accentuating the divisions, with the support of Count Pozzo di Borgo, he believes wise to save Corsica and enable a government to hand, to separate it from France in order to ensure him from another state – preferably a large maritime powerful institutions more liberal than those of France (meaning England) – a protectorate system.

In 1792, it is translated by Lucien Bonaparte as against revolutionary before the Convention and deprived of his command.

Proclaimed Generalissimo by his supporters in 1793, he then managed to take control of most of the island and wrote an indictment against the Convention. Declared a traitor to the Republic on 2 April 1793, the Convention decreed his arrest. What a consult in Corte in Paoli awards the title of Father of the Nation and decreed the severance of political and social links between Corsica and France.

April 17, Paoli is for the Corsicans ” beloved people! Stand on your guard! You’re armed, you know your rights, support them! “.

General Paoli. Cardo, Napoleonic Museum in Rome. DRWhile French troops and paolists troops clash, the Father of the Corsican Nation seeking the support of England who, with the squadron of Nelson, breaks resistance Bastia, Saint-Florent and Calvi. The French were forced to leave the island. June 15, 1794 Cunsulta proclaims independence and adopts a constitution which is created by an Anglo-Corsican kingdom. The constitution specifies that Corsica is not annexed by England but qu’unie to it, it forms an independent kingdom whose legislative power is exercised by members elected by universal suffrage.

As we see, the system thus established corresponds almost exactly to the path diagram Paoli from 1776, the protection Corsica needed him being brought by a major maritime power its liberal traditions seemed particularly recommend.

But this is not, as he hoped, Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli who is at the head of this kingdom, but a British viceroy … Sir Gilbert Elliot.

Elliot Gilbert, Sir and first Duke of Minto (1751-1814), Mirabeau classmate at the military school of Fontainebleau. He opposes Fox in 1793. Civil Commissioner in Toulon that year. Vice constitutional king of Corsica from 1794 to 1796. Minister Plenipotentiary in Vienna in 1799. He was appointed governor of the Indies in 1807, a position he held until 1813.

The agreement lasts only two years. The Viceroy is not long be troubled about the influence of Paoli. He holds him responsible for various tumultuous incidents actually attributable to the English blunders. It ends in October 1795 by getting ministers of London it is called in Britain. This is again the exile. Paoli again the same trip some 25 years ago, this time in the most complete indifference.

In October 1796, the island was again occupied by French troops.

After living 47 years in exile, Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli died in London February 6, 1807, aged 82. His ashes rest, since September 3, 1889, in the chapel on the ground floor of his birthplace in Morosaglia.

A statue of Pasquale (Pascal) Paoli, the Servian sculptor, was erected at the entrance of the village in 1953.

You can see the cenotaph of the Father of Corsica, in Westminster Abbey, in the lower south side of the choir, in the “Poets’ Corner” ….

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